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    Suchergebnis für 'electromagnetic spectrum'


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    FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen
    Tracing the Invisible
    Within the thematic complex of the optics, satellite images apply exceptionally well. The physical basics of satellite remote sensing reach from the recording to the completed satellite image. The goal of the teaching unit "Tracing the invisible" is to convey the interrelations among the electromagnetic spectrum, reflect ion, absorption and the processes of recording and developing satellite images. The teaching unit makes use of the computer’s potentials to effectively convey the subject matter by using and interaction. A computer-based interactive learning module allows a practical consideration of the thematic field and, thereby, shall ease the comprehension of the electromagnetic spectrum invisible for the human eye. Therefore, the pupils get the chance to visualise the spectrum’s infrared range in the satellite image by allocating a colour. Furthermore, the computer-based learning module covers the following aspects of modern learning: The module is science based and, thereby, fosters propaedeutic science learning The module promotes a type of teaching that emphasises the students’ self-activity and self-responsibility. The module considers the students’ life reality. The computer is applied as work equipment. Students learn to use the computer as a tool instead of an information and entertainment medium. Furthermore, the pupils learn how to handle modern media and gain media competence. The teaching unit Tracing the invisible is composed of three different parts: The first part introduces the pupils to the topic reflection by asking them to do trials on the reflection of different objects together with a virtual professor. This part aims at the characterisation of different objects with regards to their reflection patterns. To allow linkages to the everyday life, the first module part focuses on the range of visible light within the electromagnetic spectrum. In the second part, the pupils can then transfer the knowledge they acquired in the virtual lap to a satellite. The overriding goal of this second module part is the comprehension of a satellite’s mode of operation. Therefore, it revolves around the following question: How does a satellite transform the absorbed reflection signals to coloured picture information? In the last module part, the complete electromagnetic spectrum is in the focus and, thereby, the pupils learn about how satellites can process light information aside from the visible one. The active and independent working with the teaching module provides room for intensive dispute on the topic. The comprehension is to be fostered primarily through the various interaction options, and, therefore, interactive tasks have been integrated into the module. The students need to comprehend the contents before being able to advance to the next module part by successfully completing a quiz. This quiz is considered an assistance to the pupils since they are not immediately confronted with the whole matter to prevent over-straining. After successfully completing a module part, the pupils may switch among parts and, thereby, are enabled to look up facts to solve upcoming questions. It is recommended to work on the teaching units in small groups (2 persons) since the pupils can then reflect and discuss experiences and results together. Thereby, the pupils’ capacity for team work is fostered besides their linguistic competence. The pupils’ active involvement changes the role of the teacher to the one of a learning coach, supporting the learning process as a guide, supervisor, and tutor.


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    FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen
    Traces of Fire (Geography)
    Forest fires claimed a large number of lives and caused great ecologic damage in the Mediterranean in the past years. During the summer and while the fires last, the media coverage is extensive – one can watch countless reports on the course of the fires, listen to interviews on losses and human tragedies, and read about backgrounds. But what about the developments in the affected regions after such a disaster? In order to derive statements on the development of ecosystems out of balance, the use of remote sensing data is advantageous, since it allows the comparison of different points in time, thereby, showing the development and change. Most Geography curricula include natural disasters and/or interactions between nature and human interferences (e.g. with spatial effects or effects on geo-ecological cycles). This teaching unit combines both topics and analyses how a “natural” disaster, triggered or expedited by humans and, therefore, being a human interference with nature, effects the development of landscapes. The utilisation of satellite images in this case is particularly beneficial for they facilitate the analysis of an area at different points in time. Thereby, one may for example derivate conclusions on the development of landscapes in interaction with disastrous processes caused by humans. Especially the display of so-called vegetation indices allows conclusions on the vitality of plant stocks. The goal of the teaching unit "traces of fire in satellite images" is to point out the coherences between the electromagnetic spectrum, the production of satellite images and the detection of alterations within ecosystems. The teaching unit utilises the facilities of the computer for effectively conveying the issue by using animations and interactive applications. The topic complex is practically approached via a computer-based interactive learning module. The analysis tools within the learning module – NDVI or time series analysis – are programed in a new, clear and pupil-oriented fashion in Flash AS 3.0.


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    FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen
    Traces of Fire (Biology)
    Environmental pollution, overexploitation of resources and climate change are terms children and adolescents are confronted with more and more frequently. These terms are connected with the threatening and extinction of plant and animal species. While the environmental conditions are changing faster, many species are not able to adapt. Even landscapes are increasingly changing under the pressure of new climatic conditions. This has an effect on the basic food resources and the animals’ habitats. Additionally, many animal species worldwide are threatened because of direct human impacts like poaching and land sealing, which is increasing pressure on these species further. A characteristic example of an animal species threatened with extinction in Germany is the lesser spotted eagle, which has been indigenous in large areas of Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and Bavaria in former times. Today, it can be spotted only in very few German regions. To counter this trend permanently, environmentalists and animal protectionists observe the lesser spotted eagle’s situation and the landscape changes in its habitat. Satellite images have great potential for observing landscape changes: They are giving a large-scale overview of areas which otherwise can only be examined on a small scale. Additionally, image data is recorded at regular intervals and is used to deduce image products offering a greater depth of information. It is possible for instance to analyse vegetation and its time related changes with the help of NDVI-imagery. NDVI stands for „Normalized Difference Vegetation Index“. The NDVI is calculated on the basis of surfaces‘ reflections in the red (which is highly absorbed by vegetation) and infrared range (which is highly reflected by vegetation) of the wavelength spectrum. Two NDVI images showing different points in time can be compared to understand the changes of vegetation cover in the course of the year the biology curriculum for secondary education I in North-Rhine Westphalia includes a topic named “seasonal adaptation of plants and animals”, which also includes hibernating. The use of virtual globes on a satellite image basis makes it possible to look at images of different regions at different seasons and to visualize changes in vegetation. By means of satellite imagery, the pupils can identify the biomes the lesser spotted eagle crosses while migrating. The teaching unit‘s aim is to reproduce the migration route of the lesser spotted eagle with the help of the geobrowser Google Earth. In „The Lesser Spotted Eagle – Up, Up and Away“ the pupils get to know all different biomes the eagle crosses while migrating. It is not intended to introduce pupils to complex systems like biomes or ecozones. Instead, the pupils shall identify certain zones on their own by extracting information from the material available. They are encouraged to deduce their own categorisation from the joint vegetation dynamics within these zones. Furthermore, media competence is promoted by specific use of computers for deriving own insights and methodological competence is extended by the use of remote sensing for answering biological questions.



  • Siemens Stiftung
    Radiant energy
    Chart:Formulae for the radiant energy of electromagnetic waves and Planck's law of radiation.Radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic waves. It is proportional to the square of the amplitude of the electrical or magnetic field strength. Electromagnetic waves of high frequency and therefore high energy have the character of particles. The energy of these particles is proportional to the frequency and inversely proportional to their wavelength. The proportionality factor is Planck’s quantum of action h. Max Planck discovered in his investigation of radiation from black bodies that radiation energy must be composed of discrete quanta. He formulated a law of radiation which could not, however, be explained until Einstein postulated light quanta. Numerical example of Planck’s radiation formula:The sun has a surface temperature of 5,800 K; the associated radiant power according to Planck’s radiation formula is 3.85 x 1023 kW. Only a very small proportion of this strikes the earth (with vertical radiation incidence 1.37 kW/m²).Information and ideas:Radiant energy can be converted into other energy forms. In the case of an X-ray radiograph the radiant energy is converted into chemical energy (blackening of the photo film), light is converted into electrical energy in a solar cell, and similarly radio waves in an antenna. The energy of microwaves can be used for heating food.



  • Siemens Stiftung
    Energía de radiación
    Diagrama:Fórmulas para calcular la energía de radiación de ondas electromagnéticas y la ley de radiación de Planck.La energía de radiación es la energía de las ondas electromagnéticas. Ésta es proporcional al cuadrado de la amplitud de la intensidad del campo eléctrico o magnético. Las ondas electromagnéticas de alta frecuencia, y por lo tanto, la alta energía tienen las características de partículas. La energía de estas partículas es proporcional a la frecuencia e inversamente proporcional a su longitud de onda. El factor de proporcionalidad es el cuanto de acción h de Planck. Max Planck descubrió en su investigación de la radiación desde cuerpos negros que la energía de radiación ha de estar compuesta de cuantos discretos. Él formuló una ley de radiación que, sin embargo, no se pudo explicar sino hasta que Einstein postuló los cuantos de luz.Ejemplo numérico de la fórmula de radiación de Planck:el sol tiene una temperatura de 5800 K en su superficie; la potencia radiante según la fórmula de radiación de Planck es 3,85 x 1023 kW. Sólo una proporción muy pequeña de ésta llega a la Tierra (con una incidencia de radiación vertical de 1,37 kW/m²).Información e ideas:La energía de radiación se puede convertir en otras formas de energía. En el caso de una radiografía de rayos X, la energía de radiación se convierte en energía química (oscurecimiento de la película fotográfica); la luz se convierte en energía eléctrica en una célula solar y, de modo similar, las ondas de radio en una antena. La energía de las microondas puede utilizarse para calentar alimentos.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    Onda (física) Óptica
    Sprachen
    Spanisch


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Vibrations and waves
    Overview graphic: Overview of the most important parameters of vibrations and waves.Electromagnetic waves are vibrations in the electrical and magnetic field that propagate through space at the speed of light. The parameters of vibrations and waves, such as frequency, are presented in an overview.Instructions and ideas:As overview information for students on the topic of "vibrations and waves". Important basis for understanding sound waves in acoustics.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    Chart Optics Sound Wave (physics)
    Sprachen
    en
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    Production of sound
    Experimentation instructions:Experiment cards for students on sound production, for example, cup or nail guitar.Sound can be produced by a variety of ...
    Sound field and sound absorption
    Schematic diagram: Concentric propagation of sound waves. The lines of the same loudness are shown which decreases as the distance to the sound ...
    Sound production with a cup guitar
    Graphic:Produce sounds with a “cup guitar".Experimentation instructions1. Pull an elastic band over a plastic cup. 2. Pluck at the elastic ...
    Sound propagation
    Experimentation instructions:Experiment cards for students on sound propagation, for example, make a string telephone or propagation of sound waves ...
    Sound propagation
    Information sheet:Scientific explanation of the phenomenon that it is possible to blow out a candle with sound.The experiment “tambourine blows out ...
    Sound propagation and obstacles
    Information sheet:What happens when sound hits an obstacle? The wave nature of sound is explained.Sound waves propagate concentrically or ...
    Sound propagation in solid bodies
    Photo:Demonstration of a simple experiment on sound propagation in solid bodies. A table top transmits sound, for example.In old Westerns the Indians ...
    Sound propagation velocity in different materials
    Simulation:Sound velocity dependent on different materials.The speed of sound is the speed at which sound waves propagate in a medium like air or ...
    Sound propagation: tambourine & candle 1
    Photo:Tambourine in front of a lit candle. First of three pictures of the experiment “tambourine blows out candle".The experiment ...
    Sound propagation: tambourine & candle 2
    Photo:Tambourine is struck and the sound spreads out towards the lit candle. Second of three pictures regarding the experiment “Tambourine blows ...

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    FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen
    Brown Coal - Land Use Change Through Surface Mining
    The impact of man on nature can be demonstrated especially well through the example of brown coal surface mining. The expansion of the area of surface mining leads – depending on the scope of the expansion – to a corresponding myriad of ecological, social, and economical consequences. The examination of these causal relations and their consequences for man and nature is increasingly done with the help of remote sensing. With remote sensing changes over time can be analysed, problems identified, and possible interrelations between man, environment, politics, and economy derived. In this teaching unit, a broad spectrum of remote sensing data is used which demonstrates the different application possibilities of said data to the pupils .



  • Siemens Stiftung
    Incandescent lamp
    Photo:The light in this incandescent lamp is generated by heating a filament to high temperatures.In many light sources, for example, incandescent lamps or high-pressure gas-discharge lamps, a continuous light spectrum is generated by the interaction of large numbers of photons at very different energy levels. This means that the complete range of wavelengths is included, but in different proportions depending on the temperature. Incidentally, the wavelength and energy distribution of incandescent lamps fit the Planck radiation formula extremely well.Information and ideas:Example of how physical laws are translated into technical applications. Double-coiled filaments are used, among other reasons, to increase the radiant surface.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Chemie Sachkunde Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    Incandescent lamp Light
    Sprachen
    en


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Otolaryngology
    Website:Website of the American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery.The website offers a broad spectrum of information on the whole field of ear, nose and throat-related areas which goes way beyond the subjects of hearing and hearing impairment. The scientific level of the information requires a certain amount of basic knowledge. Information and ideas:Students can find detailed information here. A good reference site for teachers and parents as well.

    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    Abnormal audiometric audibility limit
    Chart: Audiometric audibility limit of a person with hearing impairment compared to an intact sense of hearing shows handicap in speech range.The ...
    Acoustic scattering
    Graphic:Acoustic scattering. One of several ways sound waves react when they hit an obstacle.Scattering is a reflection of small structures in no ...
    Age-related hearing loss
    Photo: Hearing ability is reduced with increasing age. This can cause danger for older people in road traffic.Age-related hearing loss or presbycusis ...
    All about the cochlea
    Website (Eng., Fr.): Very detailed pages on the topic of hearing.Information and ideas:Very good source of information for detailed class papers or ...
    Ampulla – location, function
    Labeled graphic:An ampulla in the sense of rotation with cupola surrounded by endolymph. The movement of the lymph distorts the shape of the ...
    Applets on acoustics
    Web resource: A compilation of applets and gif animations on waves, sound waves and acoustics that has won many awards.Compilation of applets and gif ...
    Auditory path – brain parts hearing
    Labeled graphic: “Auditory pathway” describes route taken by auditory nerve impulses in and through the brain. But the hearing process is not ...
    BBC School Radio
    Website:BBC School Radio provides an overview of programmes with material on lots of subjects.The website provides descriptions of the contents and ...
    Bicycle bell
    Recording: A bicycle bell has a warning function.Acoustic signals often function as a warning. The bicycle bell is very important in road traffic to ...
    Brainpop – educational animated movies
    Website: On this website you will find a good description of the hearing processes. When accessed for the first time it's free of charge.This ...

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    FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen
    The Lesser Spotted Eagle - Up, Up and Away!
    Satellite images have great potential for observing landscape changes: They are giving a large-scale overview of areas which otherwise can only be examined on a small scale. Additionally, image data is recorded at regular intervals and is used to deduce image products offering a greater depth of information. It is possible for instance to analyse vegetation and its time related changes with the help of NDVI-imagery. NDVI stands for „Normalized Difference Vegetation Index“. The NDVI is calculated on the basis of surfaces‘ reflections in the red (which is highly absorbed by vegetation) and infrared range (which is highly reflected by vegetation) of the wavelength spectrum. Two NDVI images showing different points in time can be compared to understand the changes of vegetation cover in the course of the year the biology curriculum for secondary education I in North-Rhine Westphalia includes a topic named “seasonal adaptation of plants and animals”, which also includes hibernating. The use of virtual globes on a satellite image basis makes it possible to look at images of different regions at different seasons and to visualize changes in vegetation. By means of satellite imagery, the pupils can identify the biomes the lesser spotted eagle crosses while migrating. The teaching unit‘s aim is to reproduce the migration route of the lesser spotted eagle with the help of the geobrowser Google Earth. In „The Lesser Spotted Eagle – Up, Up and Away“ the pupils get to know all different biomes the eagle crosses while migrating. It is not intended to introduce pupils to complex systems like biomes or ecozones. Instead, the pupils shall identify certain zones on their own by extracting information from the material available. They are encouraged to deduce their own categorisation from the joint vegetation dynamics within these zones. Furthermore, media competence is promoted by specific use of computers for deriving own insights and methodological competence is extended by the use of remote sensing for answering biological questions.



  • Siemens Stiftung
    Ancho de línea y campos magnéticos en líneas de alta tensión
    Gráfico:Se muestra la anchura de línea necesaria en diferentes técnicas de conducción para transmisión de corriente continua de alto voltaje (CCAV), así como la intensidad del campo magnético en función de la distancia a la línea. La destrucción del paisaje y los peligros para la salud son los principales argumentos en contra de la construcción de nuevas líneas eléctricas. Las grandes líneas de CCAV Norte-Sur proyectadas en Alemania están parcialmente tendidas como cables subterráneos. Una solución óptima en términos de espacio, paisaje y exposición a campos electromagnéticos. Sin embargo, los costos para cables subterráneos son de 3 a 10 veces mayores que para líneas aéreas de transmisión de energía eléctrica.

    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    Central “Dish-Sterling”
    Fotografía:Una central eléctrica de las denominadas Euro-Dish-Sterling en el sur de Francia. Con un diámetro de 17 m tiene una capacidad de 50 kW. ...
    Transformador en red de distribución local
    Fotografía:Transformador como se utiliza en la red de distribución local para reducir desde el nivel de media tensión (por ejemplo, desde 30 kV) a ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Oscilaciones y ondas
    Figura de conjunto:Las características más importantes de las oscilaciones y ondas de un vistazo.Las ondas electromagnéticas son oscilaciones de la intensidad de campo eléctrico y magnético, que se propagan en el espacio a la velocidad de la luz. Las características de las oscilaciones y las ondas, por ejemplo, la frecuencia, son mostradas en este resumen.Información e ideas:Como información resumida para los alumnos sobre el tema “Oscilaciones y ondas”. Base importante para la comprensión de las ondas sonoras en la acústica.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    Gráfico Onda (física) Sonido Óptica
    Sprachen
    Spanisch
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    El camino del sonido a través de la cóclea
    Hoja informativa:Se explican la construcción de la cóclea y la transmisión de sonido a través de la misma.Se muestra que la cóclea en su ...
    Experimentos sobre la producción de sonido
    Instrucciones de experimentación: Tarjetas de experimentación para los alumnos sobre la producción de sonido, por ejemplo, guitarra de vasos o de ...
    Experimentos sobre la propagación del sonido
    Instrucciones de experimentación: Tarjetas de experimentación para alumnos sobre la propagación del sonido, por ejemplo, construcción de un ...
    Experimentos sobre la reflexión del sonido
    Instrucciones de experimentación:Se analiza la reflexión del sonido.Se coloca una fuente de sonido en un recipiente. Sin la placa de metal, el ...
    Guía para el paquete de medios didácticos “Física del sonido - Fenómenos básicos”
    Guía:El documento ofrece una visión general del hilo conductor en cuanto a contenido y didáctica del paquete de medios “Física del sonido – ...
    Oscilación, frecuencia, amplitud
    Hoja informativa:Repetición breve de los términos básicos “oscilación”, “frecuencia” y “amplitud”.Una oscilación es un movimiento ...
    Propagación del sonido
    Hoja informativa:La explicación científica del fenómeno de que con el sonido se puede apagar una vela.De manera impresionante, el experimento ...
    Propagación del sonido con obstáculos
    Hoja informativa: Comportamiento del sonido al chocar con un obstáculo. Es ilustrado el carácter de onda del sonido.Las ondas sonoras se propagan ...
    Propagación del sonido en cuerpos sólidos
    Fotografía: Demostración de un experimento sencillo para la propagación del sonido en cuerpos sólidos, por ejemplo, en la superficie de una ...
    Velocidad del sonido
    Hoja informativa:Velocidad y cálculo de la velocidad del sonido.La velocidad del sonido indica cuán rápido se propaga el sonido. La frecuencia no ...