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    Suchergebnis für 'State of aggregation'



  • Siemens Stiftung
    States of aggregation and phase transitions
    Interactive graphic (with animations):The states of aggregation and phase transitions of substances are illustrated and demonstrated using photos and live-action videos of n-butane as an example.The whiteboard content provides a general overview of the states of aggregation and phase transitions of substances. Animations of the states of aggregation are shown in the particle model, and the relevant states are illustrated using photos. Selected phase transitions are demonstrated using live-action videos.Information and ideas: It is easy to obtain n-butane as cigarette lighter gas or as gas for camp stoves. It has a melting point of –138.3°C and a boiling point of –0.5°C.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Chemie Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    State of aggregation
    Sprachen
    en
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    A2 Storing heat (student instructions)
    Experimentation instructions for Experimento | 10+:Detailed instructions and questions for students on conducting the experiment "We store heat ...
    A2 Storing heat (teacher instructions)
    Experimentation instructions for Experimento | 10+:Background information on the content and practical information on conducting the experiment ...
    A2 Storing heat (answer sheet)
    Answer sheet:For the student experimentation instructions of the same name.The answer sheet contains sample answers to all questions asked in the ...
    A2 We store heat (link list)
    Link list:Further information on the experiment “A2 We store heat – From heat store to molten salt".The links can be used for preparing or ...
    Heat capacity
    Information sheet:Heat capacity is introduced as a physical substance variable and the associated measurement method, calorimetry, is presented. ...
    Phase transitions in the particle model
    Worksheet:How does the addition and removal of heat affect a substance’s state in the particle model? The students should fill in an overview table ...
    Phase transitions in the particle model (answers)
    Answer sheet: For the worksheet of the same name.Information and ideas:You will find more detailed information in the corresponding worksheet ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Phase transitions in the particle model
    Worksheet:How does the addition and removal of heat affect a substance’s state in the particle model? The students should fill in an overview table of the characteristic variables for phase transitions. The name of the phase transition is specified for each row in the table; the remaining variables must be filled in:• From state of aggregation• To state of aggregation• Attraction• Temperature.Four questions to check students’ understanding of phase transitions are then asked. Information and ideas:This PDF file is designed as a form. It can be filled in electronically and saved. Important: For input fields with more than one line, the predefined lines can be ignored. They will disappear as soon as you leave the input field.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Chemie Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    Atom State of aggregation
    Sprachen
    en
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    A2 Storing heat (student instructions)
    Experimentation instructions for Experimento | 10+:Detailed instructions and questions for students on conducting the experiment "We store heat ...
    A2 Storing heat (teacher instructions)
    Experimentation instructions for Experimento | 10+:Background information on the content and practical information on conducting the experiment ...
    A2 Storing heat (answer sheet)
    Answer sheet:For the student experimentation instructions of the same name.The answer sheet contains sample answers to all questions asked in the ...
    A2 We store heat (link list)
    Link list:Further information on the experiment “A2 We store heat – From heat store to molten salt".The links can be used for preparing or ...
    Heat capacity
    Information sheet:Heat capacity is introduced as a physical substance variable and the associated measurement method, calorimetry, is presented. ...
    Phase transitions in the particle model (answers)
    Answer sheet: For the worksheet of the same name.Information and ideas:You will find more detailed information in the corresponding worksheet ...
    States of aggregation and phase transitions
    Interactive graphic (with animations):The states of aggregation and phase transitions of substances are illustrated and demonstrated using photos and ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Density anomaly of water
    Simulation:Density anomaly of water – simulation of the change in molecule structure as the temperature changes (click on thermometer).Raising or lowering the temperature with the interactive thermometer simulates a change in the molecule structure, a densitometer shows how the density changes. Information and ideas:Students should realize that water has a lower density below 0 °C than in the liquid state. Water has its largest density at 4 °C and its lowest in a gaseous state above 100 °C.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Chemie Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    Molecule State of aggregation
    Sprachen
    en
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    Density depending on temperature
    Chart: Density-temperature structure of water compared with benzol; comparison shows the density anomaly of water.Most substances have a continuous ...
    Dipole formation
    Graphic: Tetrahedral structure of the water molecule and formation of the dipole moment.The strong electronegativity difference between oxygen and ...
    Experiments on the physics and chemistry of water
    Experimentation instructions:Student experiments on the physical and chemical properties of water.Simple experiments illustrate the topic of ...
    Experiments on water treatment
    Experimentation instructions:Trying out methods and processes that help to convert raw water into drinking water in the water plant.Important safety ...
    Geometry of hydrogen bridges in H2O
    Graphic:Geometric positioning of water molecules during the forming of hydrogen bridge bonds.Shows the different possibilities for hydrogen bridge ...
    Hydrogen bridge bonds in water
    Information sheet:Why does the water molecule form hydrogen bridge bonds?The highly different electronegativities in the hydrogen-oxygen bonds lead ...
    Importance of water as a solvent
    Information sheet:Importance of water as a solvent, for example dissolved gases like oxygen are important for ecosystems.Water as a solvent plays an ...
    The water molecule
    Interactive graphic:The water molecule. Selectable presentations are dimensions, angle, electrons, charge distribution.The dimensions, the angle, the ...
    Water as solvent for salts and gases
    Chart:Water is an excellent solvent of ionic and polar substances because it is a polar liquid.Solubility in water often depends strongly on the ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Phase diagram of water
    Diagram:A P-T diagram for pure water. The lines indicate the temperature and the pressure at which the solid, liquid, and vapor phases exist in equilibrium. All three phases exist in equilibrium only at the triple point; otherwise, there are a maximum of two phases. In addition to the equilibrium curves (melting pressure curve, sublimation curve, vapor pressure curve), the diagram also includes the pressure and temperature data for the melting, boiling, triple, and critical points.Attention: The axes of the diagram are not shown true to scale.Information and ideas:This diagram also reflects the density anomaly of water (lower density in the solid state than in the liquid state): The melting pressure curve shows a negative slope. The reason for the density anomaly is the hydrogen bonds.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Chemie Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    Chart Energy State of aggregation Steam engine Turbine
    Sprachen
    en
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    Phase diagram of water
    Interactive diagram labeling:A p-T diagram for pure water. The lines indicate the temperature and the pressure at which the solid, liquid, and vapor ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    How does a pressure cooker work? (teacher information)
    Teaching methods:Teaching methods for teachers on the worksheet of the same name.The students must be familiar with the states of aggregation of water and the transitions between the phases. They must also be acquainted with the representation of the phases on a phase diagram. It is beneficial if they have prior knowledge about the dependence of the boiling point of water on air pressure and therefore on the altitude of a location where water is to be brought to a boil.Degree of difficulty of the task: medium.The teaching methods provide teachers with all the important information on using the worksheet of the same name and the related incremental hints in class. The scientific background on the task and possible variations are provided. The six incremental hints for the task are provided with the corresponding answers. They are also available as a separate ready-to-print medium named “How does a pressure cooker work? (hints for printing)” or as an interactive medium named “How does a pressure cooker work? (interactive hints)” on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    Gas Pressure (physics) State of aggregation
    Sprachen
    en
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    Fizzy water (hints for printing)
    Incremental hints:The six hints and answers for the worksheet of the same name prepared for printing. The last hint presents the complete ...
    Fizzy water (task)
    Worksheet: Why does water spray out of a bottle of sparkling mineral water that has been shaken before it is opened? And why does sparkling mineral ...
    Fizzy water (teacher information)
    Teaching methods:Teaching methods for teachers on the worksheet of the same name.This task deals with dissolving gases (specifically carbon dioxide) ...
    How does a pressure cooker work? (hints for printing)
    Incremental hints:The six hints and answers for the worksheet of the same name prepared for printing. The last hint presents the complete ...
    How does a pressure cooker work? (task)
    Worksheet: The task of finding out how a pressure cooker works is presented as a contextual scenario.A short story leads to the task’s question. ...
    How does “freeze-drying” work? (hints for printing)
    Incremental hints: The six hints and answers for the worksheet of the same name prepared for printing. The last hint presents the complete ...
    How does “freeze-drying” work? (task)
    Worksheet: The task of finding out how freeze-drying works is presented as a contextual scenario.A short story leads to the task’s question; a boy ...
    How does “freeze-drying” work? (teacher information)
    Teaching methods: Teaching methods for teachers on the worksheet of the same nameThe teaching methods specify the learning prerequisites for ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    How does “freeze-drying” work? (teacher information)
    Teaching methods: Teaching methods for teachers on the worksheet of the same nameThe teaching methods specify the learning prerequisites for completing the task on the worksheet. In addition to knowing about the states of aggregation of water and the transitions between the phases (solid – liquid – gas), the students should be familiar with sublimation and resublimation as special cases of phase transition. They should also be acquainted with the representation of the phases on a phase diagram. The background on the task and possible variations are provided. The six incremental hints for the task are provided with the corresponding answers. They are also available as a separate ready-to-print medium named “How does ‘freeze-drying’ work? (hints for printing)” or as an interactive medium named “How does ‘freeze-drying’ work? (interactive hints)” on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Chemie Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    Pressure (physics) State of aggregation
    Sprachen
    en
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    Fizzy water (hints for printing)
    Incremental hints:The six hints and answers for the worksheet of the same name prepared for printing. The last hint presents the complete ...
    Fizzy water (task)
    Worksheet: Why does water spray out of a bottle of sparkling mineral water that has been shaken before it is opened? And why does sparkling mineral ...
    Fizzy water (teacher information)
    Teaching methods:Teaching methods for teachers on the worksheet of the same name.This task deals with dissolving gases (specifically carbon dioxide) ...
    How does a pressure cooker work? (hints for printing)
    Incremental hints:The six hints and answers for the worksheet of the same name prepared for printing. The last hint presents the complete ...
    How does a pressure cooker work? (task)
    Worksheet: The task of finding out how a pressure cooker works is presented as a contextual scenario.A short story leads to the task’s question. ...
    How does a pressure cooker work? (teacher information)
    Teaching methods:Teaching methods for teachers on the worksheet of the same name.The students must be familiar with the states of aggregation of ...
    How does “freeze-drying” work? (hints for printing)
    Incremental hints: The six hints and answers for the worksheet of the same name prepared for printing. The last hint presents the complete ...
    How does “freeze-drying” work? (task)
    Worksheet: The task of finding out how freeze-drying works is presented as a contextual scenario.A short story leads to the task’s question; a boy ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Not all shade is the same (task)
    Worksheet: On hot days, why is it cooler in the shade of a tree with a thick canopy of leaves than under a patio umbrella? Task with a contextual scenario.A short story leads to the task’s question. The students should explain why it is cooler in the shade of a tree with a thick canopy of leaves than under a patio umbrella covered with fabric. The question can be answered based on the energy balance during the transition between the states of aggregation; in this example, the transition is the evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant.Incremental hints for answering this task are available under “Not all shade is the same (hints for printing)” or “Not all shade is the same (interactive hints)” on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung. The worksheet includes QR codes for using the interactive hints online and viewing the solution.Explanations of the experiment for the teacher are found in “Not all shade is the same (teacher information).”

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Biologie Chemie Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    Evaporation State of aggregation
    Sprachen
    en
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    Not all shade is the same (hints for printing)
    Incremental hints: The six hints and answers for the worksheet of the same name prepared for printing. The last hint presents the complete solution. ...
    Not all shade is the same (teacher information)
    Teaching methods: Teaching methods for teachers on the worksheet of the same name.The teaching methods specify the learning prerequisites for ...

  • Website; Text; Unterrichtsplanung

    Kinofenster
    State of Play – Stand der Dinge
    Ein Taschendieb wird von einem Unbekannten durch die Straßen Washingtons gehetzt und in einer Seitengasse kaltblütig erschossen. Am selben Tag stößt jemand die Mitarbeiterin eines Kongressabgeordneten vor eine U-Bahn. Auf den ersten Blick haben beide Mordfälle nichts miteinander zu tun, doch dann führt eine routinemäßige Recherche den altgedienten Journalisten Cal McAffrey auf die Spur eines möglicherweise weit reichenden Komplotts. Beide Todesfälle hängen offenbar mit einer Untersuchung zusammen, bei dem sich eine private Sicherheitsfirma vor einem Kongressausschuss verantworten...

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    #Zeitgeist
    Das Internet prägt und verändert die Kommunikation der Menschen. Von diesem medientheoretischen Allgemeinplatz ausgehend verknüpft #Zeitgeist die ...
    (K)ein besonderes Bedürfnis
    Der 29-jährige Enea sehnt sich nach körperlicher Nähe, nach Zärtlichkeit und Sex. Das ist eigentlich nichts besonderes, erweist sich in seinem ...
    ... und dann kam Polly
    Der Honeymoon in der Karibik endet für Reuben Feffer schon am ersten Tag: Er erwischt seine frisch Angetraute in flagranti mit dem französischen ...
    1/2 Miete
    Peter ist Hacker und lebt auf Kosten anderer. Der junge Mann verkauft die ausspionierten Computerdaten großer Firmen, ist nur mit sich selbst ...
    10 Fragen an den Dalai Lama
    Dharamsala, der Sitz der tibetischen Exilregierung des 14. Dalai Lama, ist ein kleiner Ort in Nordindien und das Hauptziel des US-amerikanischen ...
    100 Schritte
    Nur 100 Schritte liegen zwischen dem Elternhaus von 'Peppino' Guiseppe Impastato und dem Haus von Gaetano Badalamenti, dem Oberhaupt der lokalen ...
    101 Reykjavik
    Der 28jährige Hlynur hält wenig vom Arbeiten, wohnt noch bei seiner Mutter, die ihn wie ein Kind umhegt. Nachts zieht er um die Häuser und ...
    11 Freundinnen
    Ganz im Gegensatz zum Männerfußball steht Frauenfußball nur selten im Fokus des öffentlichen Interesses. Als jedoch im Sommer 2011 die ...
    11'09''01 – September 11
    Am Anfang stand ein ungewöhnlich mutiger Produzent: Der Franzose Alain Brigand war von den Ereignissen des 11. September 2001 genauso geschockt wie ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    1. Properties of matter – 1.2 Boiling point of water (teacher instructions)
    Experimentation instructions:Background information on the content and practical information on conducting the “Boiling point of water" experiment. The students should be aware of everyday examples in which liquid substances are transformed into gaseous substances (e.g., perfume, gasoline, or water). Use the method of “question for discussion” and ask the students why we should not keep perfume or gasoline in an open container.Also work out the difference between the evaporation and the boiling of a liquid. If the particle model is known, students should understand that evaporation takes a long time because there is not enough energy for all the particles. At the boiling point, enough energy is supplied to the liquid so that the transition to the gaseous state can proceed spontaneously.One item deals with „Technical application and vocational orientation“.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Chemie Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    State of aggregation Temperature (general) Water
    Sprachen
    en
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    1. Properties of matter – 1.1 Melting point and freezing point of solids (student instructions)
    Experimentation instructions:Detailed instructions and questions for students on conducting the experiment “Melting point and freezing point of ...
    1. Properties of matter – 1.1 Melting point and freezing point of solids (teacher instructions)
    Experimentation instructions:Background information on the content and practical information on conducting the “Melting point and freezing point of ...
    1. Properties of matter – 1.2 Boiling point of water (student instructions)
    Experimentation instructions:Detailed instructions and questions for students on conducting the experiment “Boiling point of water”. The question ...
    1. Properties of matter – 1.3 Density of liquids (student instructions)
    Experimentation instructions:Detailed instructions and questions for students on conducting the experiment “Density of liquids”. The question ...
    1. Properties of matter – 1.3 Density of liquids (teacher instructions)
    Experimentation instructions:Background information on the content and practical information on conducting the “Density of liquids" ...
    1. Properties of matter – 1.4 Density of solids (student instructions)
    Experimentation instructions:Detailed instructions and questions for students on conducting the experiment “Density of solids”. The question ...
    1. Properties of matter – 1.4 Density of solids (teacher instructions)
    Experimentation instructions:Background information on the content and practical information on conducting the “Density of solids" experiment. ...
    1. Properties of matter – 1.5 Density of gases (student instructions)
    Experimentation instructions:Detailed instructions and questions for students on conducting the experiment “Density of gases”. The question ...
    1. Properties of matter – 1.5 Density of gases (teacher instructions)
    Experimentation instructions:Background information on the content and practical information on conducting the “Density of gases" experiment. ...
    1. Properties of matter – Vocational orientation – Intro
    Teaching methods:Teaching methods for the teaching unit “Vocational Orientation – Properties of matter”. Short outline of the topic and ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Excitation energy of a water molecule
    Chart:Water can absorb heat energy in the form of vibrations or movement of its molecules. This energy content depends on the physical state: steam contains more energy than liquid water, for example.The material surrounding us takes on different physical states depending on pressure and temperature (in Kelvin): solid, liquid or gaseous. This also applies to water: During a phase change from solid to liquid and liquid to gas respectively the energy of the water molecules increases without the temperature rising – the diagram for water shows plateaus. The values of these plateaus are approx. 6 kJ/mol (melting heat) and approx. 40,7 kJ/mol (vaporization heat) respectively.Information and ideas:Ideally suited for explaining the topic of phase equilibrium.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Chemie Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    Chart Energy supply State of aggregation Water
    Sprachen
    en
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    Phase transition due to pressure
    Simulation:The state of a substance depends not only on the temperature but also on the pressure. An example of this is skating on ice.Ice skaters ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Phase transition due to pressure
    Simulation:The state of a substance depends not only on the temperature but also on the pressure. An example of this is skating on ice.Ice skaters concentrate their body weight on a very small surface (2 thin blades). The resulting pressure (= force per surface area) liquefies the ice of the top layer. At microscopic level, this means that the water molecules are separated from their atomic binding partners inside the ice. The resulting thin film of water enables the skater to glide over the ice. The simulation shows this effect.The whole process is augmented by a temperature effect: The sliding friction of the blades on the ice results in a very small amount of heating, which allows the ice to melt even more readily.Information and ideas:Ice researchers still do not always agree absolutely in which cases pressure is the dominant effect when skating on ice and in which cases friction. Scientific studies are still being carried out on this subject. Assignment: Students should explain the melting process due to pressure using the p-T diagram.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Chemie Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    Molecule State of aggregation
    Sprachen
    en
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    Excitation energy of a water molecule
    Chart:Water can absorb heat energy in the form of vibrations or movement of its molecules. This energy content depends on the physical state: steam ...

  • interactive graphic; Arbeitsblatt

    Siemens Stiftung
    The natural water cycle (matching exercise)
    Matching exercise:The stages of the natural water cycle are shown, and the descriptions are to be matched to them.Every drop of water circulates in the natural cycle, and the necessary energy is provided by the sun. Water changes its aggregate state along its path. The students should place the word cards with the descriptions of what takes place at each stage of the water cycle in the correct positions.

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