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    Suchergebnis für 'Solar energy'



  • Siemens Stiftung
    Facts about solar energy
    %verview graphic:Schematic representation of the flow of energy from the sun to the earth: How much energy does the sun produce and how much of this reaches the surface of the earth?The sun is the main supplier of energy to the earth, providing about 99.98% of the total energy contribution to the earth's climate. The vast potential offered by the technical use of solar energy as a source of energy is shown clearly by the fact that the current world energy consumption is only 0.006% of the solar energy received. The diagram provides an overview of the quantities of energy given off by the sun and arriving on the earth. It should be noted that 100% of the energy radiated by the sun is ultimately given off again by the earth back into space. The energy balance of the earth is equal at all levels from the surface of the earth into outer space. But watch out: A tiny fragment of the radiated energy is stored by photosynthesis (approx. 0.1%) or by human activities (approx. 0.005%) and remains on the earth for a longer period of time.Information and ideas:To make the illustration clearer, the size ratios of the sun and the earth are not shown to scale. It is taken into account that ultimately 100% of the radiated energy is reflected back into outer space%



  • Siemens Stiftung
    Radiant energy
    Chart:Formulae for the radiant energy of electromagnetic waves and Planck's law of radiation.Radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic waves. It is proportional to the square of the amplitude of the electrical or magnetic field strength. Electromagnetic waves of high frequency and therefore high energy have the character of particles. The energy of these particles is proportional to the frequency and inversely proportional to their wavelength. The proportionality factor is Planck’s quantum of action h. Max Planck discovered in his investigation of radiation from black bodies that radiation energy must be composed of discrete quanta. He formulated a law of radiation which could not, however, be explained until Einstein postulated light quanta. Numerical example of Planck’s radiation formula:The sun has a surface temperature of 5,800 K; the associated radiant power according to Planck’s radiation formula is 3.85 x 1023 kW. Only a very small proportion of this strikes the earth (with vertical radiation incidence 1.37 kW/m²).Information and ideas:Radiant energy can be converted into other energy forms. In the case of an X-ray radiograph the radiant energy is converted into chemical energy (blackening of the photo film), light is converted into electrical energy in a solar cell, and similarly radio waves in an antenna. The energy of microwaves can be used for heating food.



  • Siemens Stiftung
    Energy conversion chains
    Matching exercise:Images illustrate energy conversion processes in everyday life, and the involved energy forms can be matched to them. Our everyday lives consist of energy conversion processes. An energy conversion chain can be seen in nearly everything that happens. Are we aware of them? The examples make the individual chains clear. For example, nuclear energy in the sun is converted to thermal energy and radiant energy. An apple tree uses the radiant energy for photosynthesis; radiant energy is converted to chemical energy.Information and ideas:The students can continue the energy conversion chains. For instance, what happens when the apple from the tree is eaten?The symbol icons and the energy forms they represent: plug for electrical energy, conical flash for chemical energy, atom for nuclear energy, gears for mechanical energy, sun for radiant energy, and teakettle for thermal energy.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    Energy
    Sprachen
    en
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    Bicycle dynamo
    Photo: A bicycle dynamo.Information and ideas:An example of an electricity generator that converts mechanical energy into electrical ...
    Burning candle
    Photo:A burning candle.Information and ideas:An example of the conversion of chemical energy into thermal ...
    Determining the efficiency of a hand-held mixer (answer sheet)
    Answer sheet: For the worksheet of the same name.Information and ideas:You will find more detailed information on the corresponding worksheet ...
    Determining the efficiency of a hand-held mixer (students instruction)
    Experimention instructions:In 1798, Count Rumford discovered during the boring of cannon barrels that mechanical energy can be converted into heat. ...
    Determining the efficiency of a hand-held mixer (teacher information)
    Teacher information:Teaching methods for teachers on the experiments of the experimentation instructions of the same name. This teaching method ...
    Efficiency of energy conversion
    Interactive graphic:Comparison of the typical efficiencies of energy conversion and energy transfer processes.The efficiency of selected everyday ...
    Energy conversion
    Interactive graphic:Overview of energy forms and possible ways they can be converted.Conversion between two energy forms in both directions is not ...
    Energy conversion
    Content package for interactive whiteboards:Individual media related to energy conversion are compiled here in a meaningful didactic way for teaching ...
    Energy conversion processes in everyday life
    Information sheet:Examples illustrate that energy conversion processes take place in everything that happens. We’re just not always aware of them. ...
    Energy converter
    Matching exercise:What energy forms can be converted into each other?The energy converter is named in the middle. The associated source energy (left) ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    What do private households use energy for?
    Chart:Percentage energy consumption of German and British private households according to different application areasThe bars show what proportions of the energy consumption in private households are used for room heating, hot water, cooking, lighting, and for electronic appliances. By way of example, the data for Germany and the United Kingdom from 2012 are compared. In addition, the total energy consumption of all households in Germany and the United Kingdom in 2013 is indicated. In addition, the total energy consumption of all African countries south of the Sahara is indicated.As can be seen from the chart, a large proportion of the energy in a household is used for heating and hot water. But considerable energy is also used for running refrigerators. Some of this energy could be saved by using it sparingly and and deliberately.Information and ideas:If you look at the energy consumption of individual areas in their entirety, you will see that heating energy accounts for the largest share at over 60 percent in both countries. From this it follows that there is enormous energy saving potential particularly when it comes to heating. How can that be implemented? A few examples are:• the construction of energy-saving buildings by paying attention to the influence of daylight and ensuring adequate insulation• the purchase of energy-efficient household appliances with energy labels A, A+, and A++.Compared with the two European countries, the energy consumption in Africa is low. One reason for this is that in many regions, only a few people even have access to an energy supply. Information and ideas:What energy-saving measures can students take themselves? Specific energy saving tips can also be found in the “Tips for energy saving in the household” medium.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Wirtschaftskunde
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    Energy comparison of means of transportation (teacher information)
    Teaching methods:Teaching methods for teachers on the worksheet of the same nameThis document states the learning objectives that are pursued with ...
    Energy comparison of means of transportation (worksheet)
    Worksheet:A car, bus, train, and airplane will be compared in terms of their carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption.Based on the specified ...
    Energy consumption of household appliances
    Chart:The chart shows the electric power consumption and, in some cases, the water consumption of certain household appliances. The average ...
    Energy consumption – comparison between countries
    Matching exercise:The countries China, the United States, Russia, Norway, Germany, Kenya, and the world as a whole are compared in terms of energy ...
    Energy efficiency class
    Photo:Energy label for a washing machineDuring the purchase of electrical appliances, the energy label can help the buyer determine whether the ...
    Energy saving (group work, student instructions)
    Group work:The students will collect information about ways to save energy at home, in traffic and transportation, in lighting, and in ...
    Energy saving (group work, teacher information)
    Teaching methods:Teaching methods for teachers on the student instructions of the same name.A minimum of two double teaching periods should be ...
    Energy saving (mind map)
    Mind map:Different facets of energy saving are visualized.Starting with the question of why energy saving is necessary, the mind map considers the ...
    Energy saving as an energy source
    Schematic diagram:On the basis of selected examples, this overview demonstrates that energy saving itself can be described as an “energy ...
    Everyday energy consumption
    Matching exercise:With this matching exercise students learn exactly what can be done with one kilowatt-hour of energy.Saving energy is an important ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Energy from light – Plants and solar cells
    Schematic diagram:Energy conversion in a leaf (photosynthesis), a dye-sensitized solar cell, and a silicon solar cell is compared. The similarity of photosynthesis and a solar cell is that light (radiant energy) excites electrons. The differences lie in the absorbing material: In photosynthesis, this is the leaf pigment chlorophyll; in a dye-sensitized solar cell, this is anthocyanins; and in a silicon solar cell, this is doped semiconductors. In photosynthesis, the electron excitation results in the conversion of radiant energy to chemical energy, ultimately in the form of sugar, and in solar cells, in the conversion to electrical energy (flow of current).

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Biologie Chemie Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    Electrical circuit Semiconductor Solar energy
    Sprachen
    en
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    A1 Electric current from solar cells (link list)
    Link list:Further information on the experiment “A1 Electric current from solar cells – We build a dye-sensitized solar cell".The links can ...
    How a dye-sensitized solar cell works
    Interactive graphic:The schematic diagram of a dye-sensitized solar cell is shown, and the electron flow that occurs when the cell is exposed to ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    A5 Properties of solar cells (teacher instructions)
    Experimentation instructions for Experimento | 10+:Background information on the content and practical information on conducting the experiment "Properties of solar cells – Voltage, current and power". This experiment comprises six subexperiments.If the subexperiments for investigating the electrical properties of solar cells are conducted in the suggested order, they form a learning unit that is very good for students to verify hands-on the basic knowledge of electricity they have previously learned. The fact that solar electricity is currently a hot topic will certainly help motivate the students. These experiments also provide an excellent opportunity to discuss the topics of renewable energy and energy transition, as long as the stu-dents have the relevant prior knowledge. The materials and apparatus supplied are sufficient to allow four groups of students to conduct the experiments simultaneously.The experiment comprises six subexperiments:• First investigations with the solar cell• Short-circuit current and no-load voltage at different distances from the lamp• What happens when you connect solar cells in series or in parallel?• Current and voltage with solar cells connected in series and in parallel• How do solar cells connected in series or in parallel behave when shaded?• Optimizing the power output of solar cellsNotes: • Observe the safety information in the instructions as well as the applicable safety guidelines for your school.• All materials mentioned in the instructions will have to be purchased directly from commercial sources.

    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    A5 Properties of solar cells (answer sheet)
    Answer sheet:For the student experimentation instructions of the same name.The answer sheet contains sample answers to all questions asked in the ...
    A5 Properties of solar cells (student instructions)
    Experimentation instructions for Experimento | 10+:Background information on the content and practical information on conducting the experiment ...
    Solar current for the grid
    Schematic diagram:Direct current from photovoltaic plants must be converted into alternating current for feeding into the grid. The steps for ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Solar energy experiments
    Experimentation instructions:In two experiments, the students will become familiar with the two techniques for using solar energy, solar thermal energy and photovoltaics.In the first experiment, the students will learn how the sun’s thermal energy can be used by means of metal plates. The second experiment deals with electric power generation of solar cells.Information and ideas:Observe the safety information in the related “Solar energy experiments (teacher information)” teaching methods, which are available on the Siemens Stiftung Media Portal, as well as the applicable safety guidelines for your school and discuss them with your students.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Sachkunde
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    Renewable energy Solar energy Solar technology Sun
    Sprachen
    en
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    An overview of energy sources
    Information sheet:Different energy sources are presented and compared, and examples are given of how these energy sources can be used and in what ...
    Electricity from renewable energy sources
    Content package for interactive whiteboards:Individual media on renewable energies are grouped together in a didactically meaningful way for teaching ...
    From waterwheel to turbine (ES)
    Photo collage: Photos of a waterwheel and three different types of turbines Long ago, people used waterwheels to harness the energy of water, for ...
    Guideline for the “Renewable energies” interactive whiteboard content
    Guideline:This document provides an overview of a possible scenario for using the content package for interactive whiteboards entitled “Renewable ...
    How long will our energy sources last? (ES)
    Chart:A bar chart shows an overview of the remaining years of use of energy sources. Of the fossil energy sources, oil will be the first to run out. ...
    Hydropower experiment
    Experimentation instructions:Instructions for building a waterwheel The students can build a waterwheel using simple resources and thus become ...
    Hydropower experiment (teacher information)
    Teacher information:Teaching method for teachers on the experiments of the experimentation instructions of the same name This teaching method ...
    Renewable energy sources (ES)
    Photo collage:The renewable energy sources sun, wind, and water Information and ideas:Use as an image for discussion to help the students recall ...
    Renewable energy sources and technologies (ES)
    Overview graphic: Illustration of the renewable energy sources sun, wind, and water, each with an example of a power plant solution Renewable ...
    Run-of-river power plant
    Simulation:Operating principle of a run-of-river power plant A run-of-river power plant is used on rivers with a very small fall in elevation and a ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    A1 Electric current from solar cells (teacher instructions)
    Experimentation instructions for Experimento | 10+:Background information on the content and practical information on conducting the experiment "Electric current from solar cells – We build a dye-sensitized solar cell". This experiment comprises three subexperiments. The experiment comprises three subexperiments:• Building a dye-sensitized solar cell• Power output of the dye-sensitized solar cell at different light intensities• Higher voltages through several dye-sensitized solar cellsThis experiment is particularly suitable for an introduction to solar cells, since unlike experiments with premade silicon cells, students can experience hands-on the working principle behind solar cells. With the experiments in chemistry class, students can verify their knowledge from the Bohr model of the atom (electron energy levels and excitation) and also apply their knowledge of redox chemistry. In biology class, the experiments with the dye-sensitized solar cell can best be used to introduce or illustrate the topic of photosynthesis. The experiments are not really difficult, but require attention to detail. Experienced students can easily conduct all three subexperiments in the allowed time of approx. 45 min. For inexperienced students, teachers should schedule more time or possibly skip subexperiments 2 and 3. The experiment also lends itself very well to use during a project day on renewable energy.Notes: • Observe the safety information in the instructions as well as the applicable safety guidelines for your school.• All materials mentioned in the instructions will have to be purchased directly from commercial sources.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Biologie Chemie Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    Electrical circuit Energy Semiconductor Solar energy
    Sprachen
    en
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    A1 Electric current from solar cells (answer sheet)
    Answer sheet:For the student experimentation instructions of the same name.The answer sheet contains sample answers to all questions asked in the ...
    A1 Electric current from solar cells (student instructions)
    Experimentation instructions for Experimento | 10+:Detailed instructions and questions for students on conducting the experiment "Electric ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Energy converter
    Matching exercise:What energy forms can be converted into each other?The energy converter is named in the middle. The associated source energy (left) and useful energy (right) can be matched by dragging. The matches can be checked individually after each step or at the end of the exercise. The solution can be shown and hidden at any time.This exercise provides an entertaining way to promote understanding of energy converters. It also includes a test function with no limit on the number of attempts. The correct solution can be displayed at any time.Information and ideas:The symbol icons and the energy forms they represent: plug for electrical energy, conical flash for chemical energy, atom for nuclear energy, gears for mechanical energy, sun for radiant energy, and teakettle for thermal energy.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Physik
    Medientypen
    Lernalter
    6-9
    Schlüsselwörter
    Energy supply Energy Physics
    Sprachen
    en
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    Bicycle dynamo
    Photo: A bicycle dynamo.Information and ideas:An example of an electricity generator that converts mechanical energy into electrical ...
    Burning candle
    Photo:A burning candle.Information and ideas:An example of the conversion of chemical energy into thermal ...
    Determining the efficiency of a hand-held mixer (answer sheet)
    Answer sheet: For the worksheet of the same name.Information and ideas:You will find more detailed information on the corresponding worksheet ...
    Determining the efficiency of a hand-held mixer (students instruction)
    Experimention instructions:In 1798, Count Rumford discovered during the boring of cannon barrels that mechanical energy can be converted into heat. ...
    Determining the efficiency of a hand-held mixer (teacher information)
    Teacher information:Teaching methods for teachers on the experiments of the experimentation instructions of the same name. This teaching method ...
    Efficiency of energy conversion
    Interactive graphic:Comparison of the typical efficiencies of energy conversion and energy transfer processes.The efficiency of selected everyday ...
    Energy conversion
    Interactive graphic:Overview of energy forms and possible ways they can be converted.Conversion between two energy forms in both directions is not ...
    Energy conversion
    Content package for interactive whiteboards:Individual media related to energy conversion are compiled here in a meaningful didactic way for teaching ...
    Energy conversion chains
    Matching exercise:Images illustrate energy conversion processes in everyday life, and the involved energy forms can be matched to them. Our everyday ...
    Energy conversion processes in everyday life
    Information sheet:Examples illustrate that energy conversion processes take place in everything that happens. We’re just not always aware of them. ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Energy storage
    Information module:Summary of the energy stores that are available with today’s technology.In order for energy to be available whenever it is needed, the energy is stored. This medium shows the most important energy stores for thermal, mechanical, chemical and electric energy. They are extremely important, particularly with a view to using renewable energy sources. Storing energy usually requires conversion processes, since not all forms of energy are equally suitable for storage. This module provides an overview of the efficiency of storage.Information and ideas:In-depth information on energy stores can also be found in the “Renewable energy sources" guideline. The media “Stores for electrical energy" and “How batteries and accumulators work" are also available specifically for electric energy stores. These are provided as individual media on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Chemie Physik


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Solar current for the grid
    Schematic diagram:Direct current from photovoltaic plants must be converted into alternating current for feeding into the grid. The steps for adapting electric power from a private plant and from a solar power plant (“solar park") are compared here.The diagram compares two possible ways of generating power for the grid by means of photovoltaics: decentralized use in private households and centralized use in a solar park. In both cases the electric current must be converted into alternating current for feeding into the public grid by using a power inverter. Thanks to modern high-power electronics is it also possible to carry out almost loss-free conversion into medium and high voltages for the 36- and 110-kV network in large solar parks as well.Incidentally: A solar panel has a power output of 30 – 350 Wp (Watt-peak = output with optimum solar irradiation).

    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    A5 Properties of solar cells (answer sheet)
    Answer sheet:For the student experimentation instructions of the same name.The answer sheet contains sample answers to all questions asked in the ...
    A5 Properties of solar cells (student instructions)
    Experimentation instructions for Experimento | 10+:Background information on the content and practical information on conducting the experiment ...
    A5 Properties of solar cells (teacher instructions)
    Experimentation instructions for Experimento | 10+:Background information on the content and practical information on conducting the experiment ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Renewable energy sources
    Overview graphic: Illustration of renewable energy sources: sun, wind, water, geothermal sources and biomass with an example of a power plant solution for each.Renewable energies are inexhaustible by human standards, since they renew themselves, as it were. Because of their far lower carbon dioxide emissions, they represent an alternative to fossil energy sources. Each renewable energy source is shown combined with a specific use in power plants: sun and a solar thermal power plant, wind and a wind turbine, water and a run-of-river power plant, geothermal energy and geothermal power plant, biomass and biomass power plant.Information and ideas:With this graphics, students are provided with an overview of renewable energy sources. At the same time, a link is created to energy conversion technologies. The graphics can be used as an introduction to the topic of renewable energies and also as a starting point for a discussion of energy sources, energy converters and environmental and ecological factors. Detailed information is given in the guideline on “Renewable Energies".

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