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    Suchergebnis für 'Satellite remote sensing'


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    FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen
    Tracing the Invisible
    Within the thematic complex of the optics, satellite images apply exceptionally well. The physical basics of satellite remote sensing reach from the recording to the completed satellite image. The goal of the teaching unit "Tracing the invisible" is to convey the interrelations among the electromagnetic spectrum, reflect ion, absorption and the processes of recording and developing satellite images. The teaching unit makes use of the computer’s potentials to effectively convey the subject matter by using and interaction. A computer-based interactive learning module allows a practical consideration of the thematic field and, thereby, shall ease the comprehension of the electromagnetic spectrum invisible for the human eye. Therefore, the pupils get the chance to visualise the spectrum’s infrared range in the satellite image by allocating a colour. Furthermore, the computer-based learning module covers the following aspects of modern learning: The module is science based and, thereby, fosters propaedeutic science learning The module promotes a type of teaching that emphasises the students’ self-activity and self-responsibility. The module considers the students’ life reality. The computer is applied as work equipment. Students learn to use the computer as a tool instead of an information and entertainment medium. Furthermore, the pupils learn how to handle modern media and gain media competence. The teaching unit Tracing the invisible is composed of three different parts: The first part introduces the pupils to the topic reflection by asking them to do trials on the reflection of different objects together with a virtual professor. This part aims at the characterisation of different objects with regards to their reflection patterns. To allow linkages to the everyday life, the first module part focuses on the range of visible light within the electromagnetic spectrum. In the second part, the pupils can then transfer the knowledge they acquired in the virtual lap to a satellite. The overriding goal of this second module part is the comprehension of a satellite’s mode of operation. Therefore, it revolves around the following question: How does a satellite transform the absorbed reflection signals to coloured picture information? In the last module part, the complete electromagnetic spectrum is in the focus and, thereby, the pupils learn about how satellites can process light information aside from the visible one. The active and independent working with the teaching module provides room for intensive dispute on the topic. The comprehension is to be fostered primarily through the various interaction options, and, therefore, interactive tasks have been integrated into the module. The students need to comprehend the contents before being able to advance to the next module part by successfully completing a quiz. This quiz is considered an assistance to the pupils since they are not immediately confronted with the whole matter to prevent over-straining. After successfully completing a module part, the pupils may switch among parts and, thereby, are enabled to look up facts to solve upcoming questions. It is recommended to work on the teaching units in small groups (2 persons) since the pupils can then reflect and discuss experiences and results together. Thereby, the pupils’ capacity for team work is fostered besides their linguistic competence. The pupils’ active involvement changes the role of the teacher to the one of a learning coach, supporting the learning process as a guide, supervisor, and tutor.


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    FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen
    Oases - explored from near and far
    Dry lands are a major part of the world’s ecozones, they are of increasing relevance for a growing number of people, not just since the discussions on climate change. Within this range of topics, this module covers the different types of oases and their display as a model. Here, the application of satellite images is particularly beneficial since the pictures show clearly in what way models of oases are simplifications of reality. The unit „oases from near and far“ aims at an approach to an abstract construction of a model by means of a satellite image. The module consists of the following parts: 1. oases models, 2. applied remote sensing, 3. inspection of a oasis model using remote sensing. A “professor” who is interested in expanding his knowledge on oases accompanies the pupils and asks them to support his research. This module can also be applied within interdisciplinary lessons with the subject of physics. At the beginning of the unit, the question concerning the preconditions of living in dry lands/desert should arise. Factors that need to be mentioned are water availability, the handling of the resource water and an adjusted subsistence strategy. This should provide enough sensibility for this extreme living space to deal with the question of different types of water sources.


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    FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen
    The Lesser Spotted Eagle - Up, Up and Away!
    Satellite images have great potential for observing landscape changes: They are giving a large-scale overview of areas which otherwise can only be examined on a small scale. Additionally, image data is recorded at regular intervals and is used to deduce image products offering a greater depth of information. It is possible for instance to analyse vegetation and its time related changes with the help of NDVI-imagery. NDVI stands for „Normalized Difference Vegetation Index“. The NDVI is calculated on the basis of surfaces‘ reflections in the red (which is highly absorbed by vegetation) and infrared range (which is highly reflected by vegetation) of the wavelength spectrum. Two NDVI images showing different points in time can be compared to understand the changes of vegetation cover in the course of the year the biology curriculum for secondary education I in North-Rhine Westphalia includes a topic named “seasonal adaptation of plants and animals”, which also includes hibernating. The use of virtual globes on a satellite image basis makes it possible to look at images of different regions at different seasons and to visualize changes in vegetation. By means of satellite imagery, the pupils can identify the biomes the lesser spotted eagle crosses while migrating. The teaching unit‘s aim is to reproduce the migration route of the lesser spotted eagle with the help of the geobrowser Google Earth. In „The Lesser Spotted Eagle – Up, Up and Away“ the pupils get to know all different biomes the eagle crosses while migrating. It is not intended to introduce pupils to complex systems like biomes or ecozones. Instead, the pupils shall identify certain zones on their own by extracting information from the material available. They are encouraged to deduce their own categorisation from the joint vegetation dynamics within these zones. Furthermore, media competence is promoted by specific use of computers for deriving own insights and methodological competence is extended by the use of remote sensing for answering biological questions.


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    FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen
    Brown Coal - Land Use Change Through Surface Mining
    The impact of man on nature can be demonstrated especially well through the example of brown coal surface mining. The expansion of the area of surface mining leads – depending on the scope of the expansion – to a corresponding myriad of ecological, social, and economical consequences. The examination of these causal relations and their consequences for man and nature is increasingly done with the help of remote sensing. With remote sensing changes over time can be analysed, problems identified, and possible interrelations between man, environment, politics, and economy derived. In this teaching unit, a broad spectrum of remote sensing data is used which demonstrates the different application possibilities of said data to the pupils .


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    FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen
    Traces of Fire (Biology)
    Environmental pollution, overexploitation of resources and climate change are terms children and adolescents are confronted with more and more frequently. These terms are connected with the threatening and extinction of plant and animal species. While the environmental conditions are changing faster, many species are not able to adapt. Even landscapes are increasingly changing under the pressure of new climatic conditions. This has an effect on the basic food resources and the animals’ habitats. Additionally, many animal species worldwide are threatened because of direct human impacts like poaching and land sealing, which is increasing pressure on these species further. A characteristic example of an animal species threatened with extinction in Germany is the lesser spotted eagle, which has been indigenous in large areas of Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and Bavaria in former times. Today, it can be spotted only in very few German regions. To counter this trend permanently, environmentalists and animal protectionists observe the lesser spotted eagle’s situation and the landscape changes in its habitat. Satellite images have great potential for observing landscape changes: They are giving a large-scale overview of areas which otherwise can only be examined on a small scale. Additionally, image data is recorded at regular intervals and is used to deduce image products offering a greater depth of information. It is possible for instance to analyse vegetation and its time related changes with the help of NDVI-imagery. NDVI stands for „Normalized Difference Vegetation Index“. The NDVI is calculated on the basis of surfaces‘ reflections in the red (which is highly absorbed by vegetation) and infrared range (which is highly reflected by vegetation) of the wavelength spectrum. Two NDVI images showing different points in time can be compared to understand the changes of vegetation cover in the course of the year the biology curriculum for secondary education I in North-Rhine Westphalia includes a topic named “seasonal adaptation of plants and animals”, which also includes hibernating. The use of virtual globes on a satellite image basis makes it possible to look at images of different regions at different seasons and to visualize changes in vegetation. By means of satellite imagery, the pupils can identify the biomes the lesser spotted eagle crosses while migrating. The teaching unit‘s aim is to reproduce the migration route of the lesser spotted eagle with the help of the geobrowser Google Earth. In „The Lesser Spotted Eagle – Up, Up and Away“ the pupils get to know all different biomes the eagle crosses while migrating. It is not intended to introduce pupils to complex systems like biomes or ecozones. Instead, the pupils shall identify certain zones on their own by extracting information from the material available. They are encouraged to deduce their own categorisation from the joint vegetation dynamics within these zones. Furthermore, media competence is promoted by specific use of computers for deriving own insights and methodological competence is extended by the use of remote sensing for answering biological questions.


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    FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen
    Haiti - Emergency Aid from Space
    One occasionally reads about catastrophic natural disasters with thousands of casualties in the news. After the 2004 tsunami in the Pacific Ocean, in 2010 another catastrophe of similar extent occurred in the Caribbean: On the 12th January 2010, Haiti was struck by a once-in-a-hundred-years earthquake. Such extreme catastrophes usually deploy many foreign aid workers. “Which particular areas are affected, where can we put up a field hospital, which bridges are passable, which streets are blocked, and are there intact landing runways?” are questions that concern relief organisations during the first hours. To provide information about the event’s effects for the aid workers e.g. in form of maps or GPS coordinates, the use of remote sensing data is suitable: The data can be gathered and evaluated before the first aid workers arrive on field. In the case of Haiti, it has been managed to produce first maps within 24 hours. Google Earth, the virtual globe, uses satellite and aerial images; thus pictures of the Earth’s surface taken recurrently, quality-checked and projected onto a three-dimensional model of the Earth. The geography’s curriculum for secondary education I involves within the field of content “naturally and humanly caused threats to habitats” the topic “Threat to habitats through georisks (earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes). The use of virtual globes on a satellite image basis presents itself as sufficient, as it is possible to view images of a place in different points in time and thus visualise changes. The aim of the teaching unit “Disaster Management from Space” is the mapping of earthquake effects in a small area of Haiti’s capital Port-au-Prince by means of Google Earth. Thereby, the pupils are to analyse the changes in this area between two points in time. This procedure simulates the work of civil and disaster management organisations on a small scale but with similar tools. In addition, gathering information from multimedia and from web-based geo information service presents a contentual aspect of the curriculum for secondary education II; thus, this teaching unit can be used for higher grades in a modified manner as well.


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    FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen
    Traces of Fire (Geography)
    Forest fires claimed a large number of lives and caused great ecologic damage in the Mediterranean in the past years. During the summer and while the fires last, the media coverage is extensive – one can watch countless reports on the course of the fires, listen to interviews on losses and human tragedies, and read about backgrounds. But what about the developments in the affected regions after such a disaster? In order to derive statements on the development of ecosystems out of balance, the use of remote sensing data is advantageous, since it allows the comparison of different points in time, thereby, showing the development and change. Most Geography curricula include natural disasters and/or interactions between nature and human interferences (e.g. with spatial effects or effects on geo-ecological cycles). This teaching unit combines both topics and analyses how a “natural” disaster, triggered or expedited by humans and, therefore, being a human interference with nature, effects the development of landscapes. The utilisation of satellite images in this case is particularly beneficial for they facilitate the analysis of an area at different points in time. Thereby, one may for example derivate conclusions on the development of landscapes in interaction with disastrous processes caused by humans. Especially the display of so-called vegetation indices allows conclusions on the vitality of plant stocks. The goal of the teaching unit "traces of fire in satellite images" is to point out the coherences between the electromagnetic spectrum, the production of satellite images and the detection of alterations within ecosystems. The teaching unit utilises the facilities of the computer for effectively conveying the issue by using animations and interactive applications. The topic complex is practically approached via a computer-based interactive learning module. The analysis tools within the learning module – NDVI or time series analysis – are programed in a new, clear and pupil-oriented fashion in Flash AS 3.0.


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    FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen
    From Satellite Images to Maps
    Maps as a basis for spatial orientation play a key role in geography teaching. To use maps as important devices, maps as such are dealt with in class with pupils aged 10-11. A main subject in geography teaching for pupils aged 10-11 is “mapping”. This subject area contains the question how maps can be derived from aereal or satellite images. Through this, it is referred back to national standards in education because the following competences are included: • Competence of spatial orientation: The pupils learn to orient themselves in space and therefore gain topographic orientation knowledge. • Map competence: The pupil’s spatial perception is trained. The pupils learn how to deal with maps adequately and are able to create sketches of topographic overviews and simple maps theirselves. The aim of the teaching unit „From Satellite Images to Maps” is to put the pupils in a position to derive thematic maps from digital satellite images with simple analysis tools and to formulate statements regarding landscape composition. This teaching unit makes use of computers to teach the topic in an effective manner through animations and interaction. The work with this complex of themes is done through a computer-aided and interactive learning module. The analysis tools within the learning module are implemented in flash in an illustrative design suitable for pupils. Furthermore, the computer-aided learning module takes the following requests to teaching and learning into account: • The module’s structure is science-oriented and thus encourages science-propaedeutic learning in general. • The learning module encourages lesson organisations which depend on individual activity and self-responsibility of the pupils. • The learning module takes the pupils‘ real life into account. • The medium computer is used as working equipment; thus the pupils experience the computer not only as a mere source of information and entertainment but also as a tool. Moreover, the use of new media and therefore media competence is promoted.


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    FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen
    Pixel off the right Path
    Dealing with functions mathematically is a basic aspect of this module. In addition, the pupils ought to learn about aspects of remote sensing. These aspects are divided into basic and optional parts. The basic facets are inalienable in order to comprehend the task. The additional facets are useful and interesting information for making the instruction livelier.


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    FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen
    Tsunami
    The main objectives of the teaching unit Tsunami – When waves change everything cover the training of spatial perception and assessment, risk detection and damage evaluation using satellite images. Within this group of topics, the application of satellite images appears to be particularly beneficial when looking at them at different times because it facilitates the comparison of landscape changes in the course of a natural disaster. The goals of this teaching unit Tsunami – When waves change everything are as follow: The pupils shall become acquainted with the significance of natural disasters, undertake spatial perception and assessment, as well as get to know the backgrounds of the development of tsunamis and the potentials of remote sensing as a tool for damage assessment. The teaching unit makes use of the computer’s potentials to effectively convey the subject matter by using animation and interaction. A computer-based interactive learning module allows a practical consideration of the thematic field and, thereby, shall ease the detection of landscape changes. Furthermore, the computer-based learning module covers the following aspects of modern learning: - The module is science based and, thereby, fosters propaedeutic science learning - The module promotes a type of teaching that emphasises the students’ self-activity and self-responsibility - The module considers the students’ life reality - The computer is applied as work equipment. Students learn to use the computer as a tool instead of an information and entertainment medium. Furthermore, the pupils learn how to handle modern media and gain media competence


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    FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen
    Atmospheric Circulation
    The topics weather and atmospheric circulation are foreseen for many curricula in secondary education. They are very much relevant for the students’ geography education as without knowledge of atmospheric processes (as a driving force) the distinctions among the natural potentials of different areas cannot be fully understood.


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    Kurt G. Baldenhofer
    Lexikon der Fernerkundung
    Der Einsatz von Luft- und Satellitenbildern in Wissenschaft, Wirtschaft, Umweltschutz, bei Planungsvorhaben, Sicherheitsüberwachung oder Katastropheneinsätzen gewinnt eine immer stärkere Bedeutung. Dies schlägt sich auch in einem aktuellen und kompetenzorientierten Unterricht nieder, z.B. in den Fächern Geographie, Physik, Biologie oder Natur und Technik. Das laufend aktualisierte Lexikon der Fernerkundung enthält ca. 1.400 Stichworte. Es gibt Auskunft über Ziele und Nutzen der Fernerkundung, über deren organisatorische Strukturen, über Missionen und Sensoren, über physikalische Grundlagen der Fernerkundung und über Verarbeitungsverfahren von FE-Daten.

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