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    Suchergebnis für 'Power generation'



  • Siemens Stiftung
    Solar thermal power plants – principle
    Labeled graphic:The physical principles of a parabolic trough power plant and a Dish-Stirling plant in comparison.Power plants for generating electric power from solar heat are increasingly being built. The graphic shows two methods of construction which have now become established.Parabolic trough power plan: A large solar power plant, the capacity of which is comparable with that of coal power plants. Long lines of parabolic mirrors have an absorber tube at their focal point which is filled with a working medium. Using a heat exchanger, the hot working medium generates steam which can then be used to operate large steam turbines and generators.Dish-Stirling plant: A smaller power plant in which the central element is a large, round hollow mirror (dish). At its focal point there is the working cylinder of a Stirling motor which drives a generator. The most efficient power plant of this type at the moment is the Euro Dish-Stirling type plant. Information and ideas:Solar thermal power plants also include the “solar chimney power plant", the “solar furnace" and the “tower power plant". How are these power plants designed and how do they work? In which regions of the world do we find solar thermal power plants, and of what type? Further information on solar thermal power plants is given in the guideline “Renewable Energies".



  • Siemens Stiftung
    Investment costs of various electric power generation plants
    Information sheet:A table compares the investment costs of electric power generation plants for fossil and renewable energy sources as well as nuclear power. In the comparison of the investment costs of various electric power generation plants, renewable sources of power generation perform relatively poorly. Information and ideas:In addition to this table, it is recommended that the students look at the comparison of power generation costs in the “Comparison of electricity production costs from fossil and renewable energy sources” information sheet. That information sheet shows that renewable electricity is now cost-efficient.The students could discuss why there is still opposition to changes that would have lasting benefits for the climate, environment, economy, and each and every person.

    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    An overview of energy sources
    Information sheet:This document provides an overview of the various types of energy sources, how large their respective share is in power generation, ...
    Automotive fuel cell
    Photo:A fuel cell stack for cars is pictured. The dimensions for approximately 40 l volume are approximately 1.0 m x 0.8 m x 0.35 m. A single ...
    Climate and environmental pollution caused by important energy crops
    Information sheet:The table lists the most important energy crops including the use as well as impact on the climate due to nitrogen requirements and ...
    Comparison of electricity production costs from fossil and renewable energy sources
    Information sheet:The production costs for electricity from fossil and renewable energy sources are shown in a table along with additional ...
    Development of greenhouse gas emissions
    Information module: The charts show the Kyoto Protocol targets and the development of greenhouse gas emissions in the ten most important countries ...
    Development of renewable energies worldwide
    Information module:The charts show that the development of renewable energies worldwide is progressing very rapidly. In 2005, the share of renewable ...
    Firewood as biomass
    Photo: Stacked logs Biomass, especially wood, is one of the oldest sources of energy used by humankind. The energy is “obtained” through ...
    Food and animal feed from renewable energy, air, and water
    Information sheet:Alternatives to the high energy and resource consumption of conventional animal feed production are shown. Cultivation of feed in ...
    Geothermal power plant
    Photo: The pictured geothermal power plant meets the overall heating requirements of the Freiham residential and commercial district west of Munich. ...
    Is biomass climate neutral and sustainable?
    Information sheet:Upon closer observation, the cultivation of most energy crops is neither sustainable nor climate or environmentally neutral. ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    How a wind power plant works
    Information module:Overview of the way in which a wind power plant works to generate power and the technologies usedA wind power plant converts the kinetic energy of air masses to electric energy. This information module explains how this works. There is particularly great potential in the use of wind energy on the open ocean (offshore wind energy). High-voltage direct-current transmission (HVDC) is used for this purpose. Since power generated from wind energy is not available around the clock, energy stores are needed. The statistics show the share of wind power in the power mix of individual countries.By the way: an upwind power plant (solar chimney) is not a wind power plant, but a solar thermal power plant.Information and ideas:Suitable as an introduction to a field trip to a wind power plant.Using the following sources: ABB AG; Fraunhofer IWES; World Wind Energy Association WWWA (2015); International Energy Agency IEA (2010)

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Physik
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    Hydroelectric plants
    Information module:An overview of the individual types of hydroelectric plants and how they work.Hydroelectric plants convert water’s mechanical ...
    The physics of water turbines
    Information module:A water turbine converts the potential and kinetic energy of water to rotational energy. This module describes the designs of ...
    Wind turbine – inside view
    Labeled graphic:Rotor and nacelle (engine housing) of a three-bladed wind turbine with a horizontal rotation axis. The inside view of the nacelle is ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Carbon dioxide emissions from power plants
    Chart:A comparison of carbon dioxide emissions for various types of power plants.The chart shows how much carbon dioxide (CO2, given in kg) occurs in the “extraction" of a kW hour of energy from various types of energy sources. In addition, it also shows the carbon dioxide quantities released during fuel supply and during construction of the power plants. In the fossil energy source group, natural gas has a relatively low level of carbon dioxide emissions and is thus, alongside the renewable energies and nuclear power, a good alternative for reducing carbon dioxide. Natural gas can be used particularly efficiently in combined cycle power plants for electric power generation. Information and ideas:It is important to realize that even renewable electric power generation involves carbon dioxide emissions (through construction).

    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    Is the greenhouse effect caused by people?
    %nformation module:Without the natural greenhouse effect, there would be no life on earth. But the greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and ...
    The greenhouse effect and climate change
    Information sheet:The heat radiated by the earth does not reach outer space unimpeded; some of it is absorbed and reflected in the earth's ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Tidal power plant
    Simulation:Operating principle of a tidal power plant A tidal power plant makes sense if the height difference between high and low tide is very large. The first (since 1966) and largest tidal power plant is located in Saint-Malo, France (240 MW, 600 million kWh of electricity per year). There are others (or others are planned) in Canada, Russia, and China. The tidal power plant harnesses the power of the enormous water movements during high and low tide. For this purpose, a dam is built across a bay or the mouth of a river and turbines are installed inside the dam. At high tide, the water flows from the ocean side into the bay through the turbines. At low tide, the water flows in the opposite direction and also drives the turbines. Primarily Kaplan tubular turbines are used in this case. Other tidal power plants do without a dam; instead of making use of the height difference of the tides, they take advantage of the currents produced by the tides (“tidal current power plant”).

    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    An overview of energy sources
    Information sheet:Different energy sources are presented and compared, and examples are given of how these energy sources can be used and in what ...
    Electricity from renewable energy sources
    Content package for interactive whiteboards:Individual media on renewable energies are grouped together in a didactically meaningful way for teaching ...
    From waterwheel to turbine (ES)
    Photo collage: Photos of a waterwheel and three different types of turbines Long ago, people used waterwheels to harness the energy of water, for ...
    Guideline for the “Renewable energies” interactive whiteboard content
    Guideline:This document provides an overview of a possible scenario for using the content package for interactive whiteboards entitled “Renewable ...
    How long will our energy sources last? (ES)
    Chart:A bar chart shows an overview of the remaining years of use of energy sources. Of the fossil energy sources, oil will be the first to run out. ...
    Hydropower experiment
    Experimentation instructions:Instructions for building a waterwheel The students can build a waterwheel using simple resources and thus become ...
    Hydropower experiment (teacher information)
    Teacher information:Teaching method for teachers on the experiments of the experimentation instructions of the same name This teaching method ...
    Renewable energy sources (ES)
    Photo collage:The renewable energy sources sun, wind, and water Information and ideas:Use as an image for discussion to help the students recall ...
    Renewable energy sources and technologies (ES)
    Overview graphic: Illustration of the renewable energy sources sun, wind, and water, each with an example of a power plant solution Renewable ...
    Run-of-river power plant
    Simulation:Operating principle of a run-of-river power plant A run-of-river power plant is used on rivers with a very small fall in elevation and a ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Parabolic trough power plant
    Photo: Parabolic trough power plant in Lockhart near Harper Lake, California (Mojave Solar Project) These solar power plants work with long rows (for example, 112 m) of parabolic reflectors with a tube containing the working medium running through the focal point. The reflectors are automatically aligned to follow the path of the sun. The radiation is intensified 80-fold due to the bundling in the reflector, and oil in the absorber is heated to around 400°C. The hot oil flows to the power plant building, where it generates steam via a heat exchanger to drive a steam turbine with a generator. (Alternatively, power plants with fluid molten salt in the absorber tube are being considered.) A parabolic trough solar farm consisting of nine power plants with a total output of 350 MW has been operating in the United States for 20 years. In Spain, Andasol 1, 2, and 3 achieve 150 MW combined. Thanks to integrated heat storage from molten salt, Andasol delivers full output for over seven hours even when the sun is not shining. The world's largest plant, at 580 MW, is currently being built in Morocco.



  • Siemens Stiftung
    Turbines and generators in the Walchensee power plant
    Photo:The photo shows the turbine hall in the Walchensee power plant near Kochel in Upper Bavaria, Germany. The horizontal Francis turbines are on the left and the associated generators are on the right. The Walchensee power plant is one of Germany’s largest storage power plants. When it was commissioned in 1924, it was one of the most modern storage power plants in the world. It uses two natural lakes, Lake Walchen as the upper reservoir and Lake Kochel as the lower reservoir. Through six 430 m pressure pipes with a slightly decreasing diameter from top to bottom of about 2 m, the water flows with a height of drop of over 200 m to the eight turbines in the power house. The eight turbines deliver approximately 300 million kilowatt-hours of environmentally friendly energy annually. Every year, some 100,000 visitors tour the information center at the Walchensee power plant.

    Bildungsbereiche
    Fach- und Sachgebiete
    Physik
    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    Functional design of a wind turbine
    Graphic:The complete structure of a wind turbine including its base and tower is illustrated schematically. The foundation serves to anchor the wind ...
    Pumped storage power plant
    Simulation: The principle of a pumped storage power plant is illustrated as an animation. If surplus energy exists in the power supply grid, water is ...
    Storms and wind power (link list)
    Link list:A collection of selected Internet links for completing the “Storms and Wind Power" inquiry ...
    Wind as an energy source
    Photo: The effect of wind as an energy source, illustrated by a windsock.Wind is the movement of air masses as a result of temperature fluctuations ...

  • illustration; interactive graphic

    Siemens Stiftung
    Wave power plant (ES)
    Labeled graphic:Cross-sectional view of a wave power plant with a Wells turbine A wave power plant converts the kinetic energy of the ocean waves to electrical energy. A funnel-shaped roof covers the surface of the water. Inside, the waves rise and fall, compressing and expanding the trapped air. The energy stored in the pressure difference is converted to electric power by a Wells turbine and generator. The special feature of a Wells turbine is that, once in motion, it maintains the same direction of rotation, regardless of the direction from which the water is flowing. The reason for this is the turbine’s completely symmetrical blade profile.A wave power plant in Scotland supplies as many as 50 households with electrical energy. However, the cost/benefit ratio of such power plants is relatively poor, which is why hardly any other wave power plants of this type have been built worldwide since 2011.

    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    An overview of energy sources
    Information sheet:Different energy sources are presented and compared, and examples are given of how these energy sources can be used and in what ...
    Electricity from renewable energy sources
    Content package for interactive whiteboards:Individual media on renewable energies are grouped together in a didactically meaningful way for teaching ...
    From waterwheel to turbine (ES)
    Photo collage: Photos of a waterwheel and three different types of turbines Long ago, people used waterwheels to harness the energy of water, for ...
    Guideline for the “Renewable energies” interactive whiteboard content
    Guideline:This document provides an overview of a possible scenario for using the content package for interactive whiteboards entitled “Renewable ...
    How long will our energy sources last? (ES)
    Chart:A bar chart shows an overview of the remaining years of use of energy sources. Of the fossil energy sources, oil will be the first to run out. ...
    Hydropower experiment
    Experimentation instructions:Instructions for building a waterwheel The students can build a waterwheel using simple resources and thus become ...
    Hydropower experiment (teacher information)
    Teacher information:Teaching method for teachers on the experiments of the experimentation instructions of the same name This teaching method ...
    Renewable energy sources (ES)
    Photo collage:The renewable energy sources sun, wind, and water Information and ideas:Use as an image for discussion to help the students recall ...
    Renewable energy sources and technologies (ES)
    Overview graphic: Illustration of the renewable energy sources sun, wind, and water, each with an example of a power plant solution Renewable ...
    Run-of-river power plant
    Simulation:Operating principle of a run-of-river power plant A run-of-river power plant is used on rivers with a very small fall in elevation and a ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Wind power plant at sea
    %hoto:View of the Middelgrunden offshore wind park in Denmark.In the sea near the coast, there is enough space to erect a large number of wind turbines for electrical power generation. Because there is also more wind at sea, around 50% more energy is produced than on land. One problem is the transmission of the electrical energy to the power grid on land. If the modern technology of high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) transmission via marine cable is used, transmission losses are minimal. Information and ideas:How are offshore wind parks different from those on land? What are the advantages and disadvantages? What hurdles have to be overcome, for example, for transfer to the power grid? What ecological consequences could occur%



  • Siemens Stiftung
    Electricity from renewable energy sources
    Content package for interactive whiteboards:Individual media on renewable energies are grouped together in a didactically meaningful way for teaching with an interactive whiteboard. All media files for the content package are included in this self-extracting file. The content package can be started simply by clicking the “.exe” file. The content package is designed for use in elementary schools. It consists of the following 29 individual media files:• 7 photos and photo collages of energy sources and types of power plants• 4 schematic diagrams of various types of power plants, some animated• 3 charts with data on the availability of energy sources, carbon dioxide emissions from electric power generation, and the electricity mix in 2050• 2 graphics that can be labeled interactively on the structure of a wind power plant• 1 simulation of a solar cell• 1 information sheet providing an overview of energy sources and power plants• 2 interactive matching exercises, one for evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of the energy sources and one for labeling the components of a wind turbine.• 3 sets of experimentation instructions, plus related information for the teacher• 1 content guideline on the topic of “renewable energies” for the teacher• 1 guideline for using the media in the content package.

    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    An overview of energy sources
    Information sheet:Different energy sources are presented and compared, and examples are given of how these energy sources can be used and in what ...
    From waterwheel to turbine (ES)
    Photo collage: Photos of a waterwheel and three different types of turbines Long ago, people used waterwheels to harness the energy of water, for ...
    Guideline for the “Renewable energies” interactive whiteboard content
    Guideline:This document provides an overview of a possible scenario for using the content package for interactive whiteboards entitled “Renewable ...
    How long will our energy sources last? (ES)
    Chart:A bar chart shows an overview of the remaining years of use of energy sources. Of the fossil energy sources, oil will be the first to run out. ...
    Hydropower experiment
    Experimentation instructions:Instructions for building a waterwheel The students can build a waterwheel using simple resources and thus become ...
    Hydropower experiment (teacher information)
    Teacher information:Teaching method for teachers on the experiments of the experimentation instructions of the same name This teaching method ...
    Renewable energy sources (ES)
    Photo collage:The renewable energy sources sun, wind, and water Information and ideas:Use as an image for discussion to help the students recall ...
    Renewable energy sources and technologies (ES)
    Overview graphic: Illustration of the renewable energy sources sun, wind, and water, each with an example of a power plant solution Renewable ...
    Run-of-river power plant
    Simulation:Operating principle of a run-of-river power plant A run-of-river power plant is used on rivers with a very small fall in elevation and a ...
    Solar cell – Basic principle (ES)
    Simulation:The basic principle of a solar cell is shown in simplified form. Light that strikes a solar cell produces charges in the solar cell. These ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Renewable energy sources and technologies (ES)
    Overview graphic: Illustration of the renewable energy sources sun, wind, and water, each with an example of a power plant solution Renewable energies are inexhaustible by human standards since they renew themselves. They present an alternative to fossil energy sources due to their significantly lower carbon dioxide emissions. Each renewable energy source is shown combined with a specific use in power plants: sun as the energy source and a solar thermal power plant, wind as the energy source and a wind turbine, and water as the energy source and a run-of-river power plant.Information and ideas:The graphic provides the students with an overview of renewable energy sources. At the same time, a connection is established to the technologies for electric power and heat generation. The graphic can be used as an introduction to the topic of renewable energies and simultaneously as a starting point for a discussion on energy sources, energy converters, and the environment and ecology.

    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    An overview of energy sources
    Information sheet:Different energy sources are presented and compared, and examples are given of how these energy sources can be used and in what ...
    Electricity from renewable energy sources
    Content package for interactive whiteboards:Individual media on renewable energies are grouped together in a didactically meaningful way for teaching ...
    From waterwheel to turbine (ES)
    Photo collage: Photos of a waterwheel and three different types of turbines Long ago, people used waterwheels to harness the energy of water, for ...
    Guideline for the “Renewable energies” interactive whiteboard content
    Guideline:This document provides an overview of a possible scenario for using the content package for interactive whiteboards entitled “Renewable ...
    How long will our energy sources last? (ES)
    Chart:A bar chart shows an overview of the remaining years of use of energy sources. Of the fossil energy sources, oil will be the first to run out. ...
    Hydropower experiment
    Experimentation instructions:Instructions for building a waterwheel The students can build a waterwheel using simple resources and thus become ...
    Hydropower experiment (teacher information)
    Teacher information:Teaching method for teachers on the experiments of the experimentation instructions of the same name This teaching method ...
    Renewable energy sources (ES)
    Photo collage:The renewable energy sources sun, wind, and water Information and ideas:Use as an image for discussion to help the students recall ...
    Run-of-river power plant
    Simulation:Operating principle of a run-of-river power plant A run-of-river power plant is used on rivers with a very small fall in elevation and a ...
    Solar cell – Basic principle (ES)
    Simulation:The basic principle of a solar cell is shown in simplified form. Light that strikes a solar cell produces charges in the solar cell. These ...


  • Siemens Stiftung
    Solar current for the grid
    Schematic diagram:Direct current from photovoltaic plants must be converted into alternating current for feeding into the grid. The steps for adapting electric power from a private plant and from a solar power plant (“solar park") are compared here.The diagram compares two possible ways of generating power for the grid by means of photovoltaics: decentralized use in private households and centralized use in a solar park. In both cases the electric current must be converted into alternating current for feeding into the public grid by using a power inverter. Thanks to modern high-power electronics is it also possible to carry out almost loss-free conversion into medium and high voltages for the 36- and 110-kV network in large solar parks as well.Incidentally: A solar panel has a power output of 30 – 350 Wp (Watt-peak = output with optimum solar irradiation).

    weitere Medien der Reihe:
    A5 Properties of solar cells (answer sheet)
    Answer sheet:For the student experimentation instructions of the same name.The answer sheet contains sample answers to all questions asked in the ...
    A5 Properties of solar cells (student instructions)
    Experimentation instructions for Experimento | 10+:Background information on the content and practical information on conducting the experiment ...
    A5 Properties of solar cells (teacher instructions)
    Experimentation instructions for Experimento | 10+:Background information on the content and practical information on conducting the experiment ...
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