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Siemens Stiftung

How to recognize rainforest protection

Photo collage:
Overview of consumer labels ("eco labels") from which sustainable use of tropical wood can be inferred.

The photo collage shows some products with eco labels:
· Toilet paper and a paper notebook with the Blue Angel (Germany-specific label)
· A package of tea with the fair trade label
· An ax with a wooden handle and the FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) label
The latter two eco labels are used internationally.

Information and ideas:
The students can learn more about the individual labels on the Web. For which products are they granted and what are the criteria for granting them?
The students can learn about other labels, such as PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification), FFCS (Finnish Forest Certification System), and "Rainforest Alliance certified/verified."
In addition, the students can list the pros and cons of eco labels: Can such certification really save tropical rainforests?


Dieses Material ist Teil einer Sammlung

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Hearing

Photo:
A girl holds her open hand up to her ear to signalise that she is listening. Introduction to the topic "hearing" but also to "listening".

We use our ears to hear with. The only visible part of the hearing organ is the pinna. It collects the sound and conducts it into the ear canal. If somebody wants to understand better, they automatically hold their hand up to the ear to increase the size of the funnel. That has no immediate effect but has, in the meantime, become a sort of automatic gesture.

Information and ideas:
Introductory picture to the subject "Hearing" and into the discussion of the hearing process. What happens after the sound is picked up by the pinna?

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sensory organ
Reception of stimuli and transmission of information

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Siemens Stiftung

; ;: Entire ear section - unlabeled

Unlabeled graphic:
Cross-section of the entire ear, for example, to be incorporated in presentations or for individual projection.

Cross-section of entire ear.

Information and ideas:
This graphic can be used to describe and explain the most important functional areas of the ear and their role in the hearing process.
The teacher can look at the graphic together with the students on the computer screen or get the students to do the labelling either on printouts or on the computer.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sensory organ

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Effects of noise

Schematic diagram:
The graphic shows that - apart from physical effects - sound does not become noise until it reaches the brain.

Noise has effects on the physical and mental health of human beings. What the individual subjectively considers to be noise depends on a number of factors, for example the individual's own mood.

Information and ideas:
Can be used as introduction to topic "What are the effects of noise??.
Can also be used for illustration purposes: individual parts can be covered up (and then gradually uncovered in the course of the lesson).

Relevant for teaching:
Noise: causes, effect, protection

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Siemens Stiftung

;: Echolocation with dolphins

Graphic:
Dolphins use the echo under water to locate other fish as prey.

Just like a bat, a dolphin can recognize from the echo whether the prey is nearby or not. It produces clicks and whistling noises under water. If it has discovered something of interest, the dolphin will move closer and "click" more quickly. This gives it an exact acoustical picture of its surroundings.

Information and ideas:
Based on the phenomenon of an echo, this graphic can show how animals use the echo to find prey.

Relevant for teaching:
Functions of the senses
Acoustic phenomena
Sound/acoustics: hearing range, hearing frequency limit, parameters
Vibrations and waves

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Diffraction

Graphic:
Diffraction of waves on encountering an obstacle.

The graphic shows possible diffraction effects according to aperture and wave length.

Information and ideas:
Diffraction arises in sound waves as well, for example at corners of buildings.
Further information regarding this graphic is available as information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves

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Siemens Stiftung

;: Color and voltage of LEDs

Photo:
The operating voltage of LEDs depends on the color. This is an indication of discrete energy levels and the photon character of light.


What color an LED emits depends on the energy level of the charge transition from the non-conduction band to the conduction band. Depending on the basic material (Si, GaAs, GaN etc.) and doping, as well as the internal resistance every LED has a typical operating voltage (voltage = potential = energy difference). Although this is modified by the design (internal resistance, etc.), in the final analysis it is determined by the discrete energy level of the charge transition between non-conduction and conduction band.

Information and ideas:
The abstract principle of the quantization of energy in the form of photons is demonstrated clearly in an extremely simple experiment with four LEDs and a power supply unit. Red LEDs light up at a voltage from about 1.5 volts, yellow from about 1.9 volts, green from about 2.3 volts and blue from about 3.3 volts.
Instructions for building a variable LED color mixer can be found in the experimentation instructions "Experiments - energy quantization with LEDs" on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

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Siemens Stiftung

;: Cochlea - transparent uncoiled

Graphic:
Spatially transparent cross-section of the uncoiled cochlea with scala vestibuli, scala tympani and spiral canal of the cochlea.

The flow direction of sound as a traveling wave is sketched in. The position of the organ of Corti as sound recipient is shown as well.
Furthermore it is clearly illustrated that the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli are one single fluid cavity.

Information and ideas:
This graphic helps to make clear that the whole cochlea is a fluid canal and that it is there where the vibrations of sensory hair cells are converted into nerve impulses.
Can be used on worksheets or as overhead transparency.

Relevant for teaching:
Structure and functions of a sense organ
Reception of stimuli and transmission of information
Functions of senses

Medientypen

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Lernalter

11-18

Schlüsselwörter

Anatomy (human) Ear Sound

Sprachen

Englisch