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Vom Wasserrad zur Turbine (GS)

Fotocollage:
Fotos von einem Wasserrad sowie drei verschiedenen Turbinenarten.

Schon früh setzte man Wasserräder ein, um die Energie von Wasser zu nutzen, z. B. zum Antreiben eines Mühlrads. Die Turbinen, die in Wasserkraftwerken eingesetzt werden, sind eine Weiterentwicklung des klassischen Wasserrads, um Generatoren für die Stromerzeugung anzutreiben. Diese Turbinen heißen nach ihren Erfindern: Pelton, Kaplan und Francis.

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Siemens Stiftung

Speicherkraftwerk

Grafik:
Funktionsprinzip eines Speicherkraftwerks.

Beim Speicherkraftwerk wird von Natur aus nachfließendes Wasser mithilfe eines Stausees angestaut und für Bedarfsspitzen bevorratet. Das gestaute Wasser wird dann mittels Druckrohrleitungen zu den Turbinen des niedriger gelegenen Kraftwerks geführt. Die gesamte Lageenergie des Wassers im Speicherbecken ist also ein Energiespeicher für Spitzenzeiten. Kleinere Speicherkraftwerke verwenden Pelton-Turbinen, große Speicherkraftwerke (großer Druck und große Wassermenge) verwenden Francis-Turbinen.

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Siemens Stiftung

Worldwide consumption of fossil energy sources

Chart and table:
The worldwide consumption of fossil energy sources and their use in electric power and heat generation in figures.

The pie chart displays the percentage share of fossil energy sources (coal, oil, and natural gas) in the worldwide primary energy supply. The table shows a breakdown by distribution of these fossil energy sources to electric power and heat generation, but also to other areas such as industry.

Information and ideas:
The chart and table provide the students with an overview of where and to what extent fossil energy sources were used in 2005. These aids can be followed by discussions on the finite nature of these energy sources and on changing over to or expanding the use of renewable energy sources. Additional information can be found in the "An overview of energy sources? information sheet and the "How long will our energy sources last?? graphic.

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Tenside molecules and their interaction with dirt particles

Schematic diagram:
Tensides make it possible to dissolve water-insoluble substances in water.

Tensides have a water-receptive (hydrophilic) and a water-repellent (hydrophobic) component. The graphic shows how tensides make it possible to dissolve dirt particles in water.

Information and ideas:
Tensides play a role in the production of emulsions. For this reason, they can also be referred to as emulsifiers. They can reduce the tension at the boundary surface between two liquids that do not readily mix, such as oil and water, so that the two substances mix.

Medientypen

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Lernalter

13-18

Schlüsselwörter

Tensides

Sprachen

Englisch

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Siemens Stiftung

Sticking object into ear

Photo:
Do not stick objects in your ear! It can lead to eardrum injuries!

Don't stick anything in your ears! Pencils and other pointed or sharp instruments are particularly dangerous as they can very easily injure the eardrum! Even a cotton wool bud has caused serious injuries in the past, if, for example, you suddenly turn your head!

Information and ideas:
A situation that can be often observed in class. The picture can be used to introduce the subject "protection of the ear".
Possible questions:
What am I allowed to do to my ears?
What should I not do?
Why can a joke end up having serious consequences?

Relevant for teaching:
Hearing defects, hearing impairment
Personal health care

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The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Speech as highly complex sound signal

Graphic:
Oscillographic curve of the spoken sentence "It's raining cats and dogs".

Speech sounds are fluctuating sound signals where the composition of frequencies changes all the time.
Aperiodical overlap periodical parts. Unlike noises, some of which have similar frequency curves, sound in speech is always the carrier of meaning or of messages sent out by the speaker. Other noises like smacking of lips, hissing, rhythms, basic pitch are typical of the individual (acoustic fingerprint) but not essential for the speech content!

Information and ideas:
Supplementary to worksheets and transparencies.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves
Communication and understanding

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Sound curve vs. frequency and amplitude

Chart:
Shows vibration with a high and loud tone.

With respect to the sound curve upper left, the lower left sound curve has twice the sound pressure (amplitude is twice as high). The upper right curve, however, has twice as high tone (twice the frequency). Bottom right, both the amplitude and frequency have been doubled.The following can be said about a sound curve:
- Amplitude stands for volume.
- The frequency indicates the pitch.

With high tones, the wave shapes are narrow and are repeated quickly, with low tones, the wave shapes are broader and are repeated more slowly.

Information and ideas:
Connection can be made to the curve discussion in Mathematics. To be used on worksheets, transparencies etc.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves

Medientypen

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Lernalter

11-18

Schlüsselwörter

Sound Wave (physics)

Sprachen

Englisch

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment;: Sense organ tongue

Photo:
The tongue as sense organ. We use it to taste with - sweet, sour, salty or bitter?

We can perceive tastes with our tongue. To do this we have receptors in different areas of our tongue.
Each region recognises a different sort of taste.
Very subtle differences, however, can usually only be distinguished with the help of the sense of smell!

Information and ideas:
Students can study the different regions and test them:
- bitter: back part of the tongue
- sour: right and left edges of the tongue, more to the back
- salty: middle - edges left and right
- sweet: tip of the tongue

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sense organ
Reception of stimuli and processing of information
Senses discover the environment

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Sense organ of balance

Labeled graphic:
Structure of sense organ of balance with labeling of most important parts.

The sense organ of balance is located next to the hearing organ (cochlea) in the inner ear.
The sense organ of balance is made up of the vestibule and the semi-circular canals. Distinction is made between the sense of position and the sense of rotation.
Sense of position:
The vestibule with saccule and utricle which enable us to perceive our spatial position as well as straight movements.
Sense of rotation:
The three semi-circular canals which enable us to perceive rotational movements.

Information and ideas:
This graphic shows very clearly where the sense organs of balance (sense of position, sense of rotation) are located in the inner ear. It is also clear where they are in relation to the structure of the cochlea.

The graphic can be used as introduction to the topic or to give an overview in order to be able to explain individual parts and sensory organs of the ear.

The teacher can work on the graphic together with students at the computer or get the students to label it themselves either as a printout or at the computer.

Relevant for teaching:
Structure and function of a sensory organ
Reception of stimuli and processing of information.

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Sense of position - world not upside down

Photo:
Visual illustration of the sense of position at work: child is hanging upside down from bar and is not losing sense of direction.

We know even with our eyes closed whether we are upside down or whether we are holding our head down. Yes, even with our head down, we can see things the right way up. Our sense of position is the reason for that.

Information and ideas:
Use picture as introduction to sense of position: children enjoy such situations like this one at the playground. Children can tell the class and teacher when they become aware of their sense of position, (e.g. when they are on a roller coaster).

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sensory organ
Reception of stimuli and processing of information
Senses discover the environment