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Siemens Stiftung

Global primary energy consumption

Chart:
Global primary energy consumption in 2012

Chart:
A bar chart indicates the extent of primary energy consumption in millions of tonnes of oil equivalents (mtoe) of individual regions of the world and their percentage share of global energy consumption.

Information and ideas:
The following questions are good for a short presentation: Who or what is the OECD? What are the objectives of the OECD? Which countries are OECD members?

Using the following source: International Energy Agency (IEA)


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Siemens Stiftung

Energy Saving: Energy saving as an energy source

Schematic diagram:
On the basis of selected examples, this overview demonstrates that energy saving itself can be described as an "energy source.?

Five examples from everyday life (electric power and heat generation, power distribution, construction, lighting, and transportation) are used to show how energy saving reduces the consumption of individual energy sources (primary or secondary).

Information and ideas:
Students can look for further examples. What is the significance of energy saving in relation to the general scarcity of resources? Can it be equated roughly with the harnessing of renewable energy sources?


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Siemens Stiftung

Entire ear with brain

Unlabeled graphic:
Cross-section of entire ear with auditory nerve and its connection to brain. For incorporation in presentations or for individual projection.

The hearing process does not just involve the hearing organ but also the brain. It is there that the signals are received and understood.

Information and ideas:
This graphic can be used to describe and explain the most important functional areas of the ear and their role in the hearing process.
The teacher can look at the graphic together with the students on the computer screen or get the students to do the labeling either on printouts or on the computer.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sensory organ

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Siemens Stiftung

Normal audiometric audibility limit

Chart:
Audiometric audibility limit of a person with normal hearing with typical frequency and loudness ranges for speech and music.

The speech range is that range of frequency and loudness where speech communication usually takes place. Within the audiometric audibility limit it is the kidney-shaped range. In our diagram it is coloured blue.

Information and ideas:
An attempt at comparing diagrams showing normal hearing and reduced hearing can be done by students individually - as homework. It is useful for testing written expression (English) as well as for testing basic skills from Mathematics or Physics (how to interpret a diagram, for example).

Relevant for teaching:
Hearing defects/hearing impairment
How hearing functions
Sound/acoustics

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Inner ear - location in skull bone

Overview graphic:
The location of the inner ear in the skull bone.

The inner ear is not located in a bone cavity but is embedded in the petrous bone as a "bony labyrinth". The petrous bone is itself part of the temporal bone.

Information and ideas:
From the simple to the complex. The actual hearing organ that is located in the cochlea of the inner ear is quite complex. It is therefore definitely advantageous if the student first of all gets an idea of where and how the inner ear is located in the skull.

Relevant for teaching:
Structure and function of a sensory organ
Reception of stimuli and transmission of information
Functions of senses.

Medientypen

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Lernalter

11-18

Schlüsselwörter

Anatomy (human) Chart Ear

Sprachen

Englisch

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Siemens Stiftung

Five senses in the human head

Labeled graphic:
The five human senses.

With the five sense organs, eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin, the human being receives stimuli, transforms them into electrical nerve impulses which are then transmitted to the brain.
There they are processed, classified and interpreted.

Information and ideas:
Suitable as starting point. Important to point out that internal organs are involved as well as the visible organ and that the brain is necessary for the evaluation of the impulses.

Relevant for teaching:
Structure and function of a sensory organ
Reception of stimuli and processing of information
Senses discover the environment

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Siemens Stiftung

Cochlea - an overview

Labeled graphic:
The cochlea with the location of the vestibule, the oval window and the round window. To help understand where the sound enters and exits the cochlea.

The cochlea consists of a coiled canal which appears in three compartments in the section. The part leading upwards is called the scala vestibuli and begins at the oval window.

Between scala vestibuli and scala tympani there is a membranous tube which is also filled with fluid. This is where the actual hearing organ, the Organ of Corti is located.

Information and ideas:
Can be used in a worksheet, for work together on the digital projector, or as an overhead transparency.
Further information regarding this graphic is available as information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
Structure and functions of a sensory organ
Reception of stimuli and transmission of information
Functions of senses

Medientypen

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Lernalter

11-18

Schlüsselwörter

Anatomy (human) Chart Ear

Sprachen

Englisch

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Cochlea - individual coil section

Labeled graphic:
Section of individual coil of spiral canal of the cochlea.

The labeled graphic shows a section of an individual coil of the cochlea.

The following are labeled: scala vestibuli, tectorial membrane, hair cells of the sensory cells, spiral canal of the cochlea, auditory nerve, scala tympani.

Information and ideas:
Can be used on a worksheet, as an overhead transparency or via digital projector.
Further information regarding this graphic is available as information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and functions of a sensory organ
Reception of stimuli and transmission of information
Functions of senses

Medientypen

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Lernalter

11-18

Schlüsselwörter

Anatomy (human) Chart Ear Sound

Sprachen

Englisch

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Siemens Stiftung

Thermal energy

Diagram:
Formulas for the thermal energy of gases and temperature as a function of their molar heat capacity at constant volume.

The thermal or internal energy of a substance is the sum of the kinetic energies of its atoms or molecules. This energy is measurable as temperature. If you supply heat to the substance, the particle speed increases and the temperature rises. In the case of molecular gases, the supply of heat in addition to the translatory motion can excite other forms of motion (rotation and oscillation). This finds expression in the stepped curve of the molar heat capacity (diagram at the right). The molar heat capacity of a substance is the amount of energy required to raise 1 mole of a substance by 1°C. For gaseous substances, the following applies: If the gas particles move only linearly (translation), the amount of heat that is required to raise the gas by 1°C remains constant at 3R/2. In the case of molecular gases, the molecules start to rotate when a specific temperature is reached. In this area (linear increase in the diagram), more energy must be supplied to raise the temperature by 1°C, since the energy goes not only into the translatory motion, but also into exciting the rotation. If all particles are made to rotate, the energy required to raise the temperature by 1°C is again constant at 5R/2. The rise at the point of transition from rotation to oscillation can be explained in a similar way.

Information and ideas:
The overview graphic summarizes the topic of thermal energy using the example of gases. You will find detailed explanations as well as an explanation of the heat in solid bodies in the guideline "What is energy?"

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Siemens Stiftung

Global energy supply - future development

Chart:
The development of the global energy supply from 1990 to 2035 is shown.

Reliable figures are available through 2012; from that date forward, the International Energy Agency must rely on estimates. The represented figures refer to the more optimistic New Policies Scenario, which takes into account political announcements and plans of governments, for example, to reduce CO2 emissions, although they have not yet been implemented. The estimated energy consumption for 2035 is 12,001 mtoe.

Using the following source: International Energy Agency (IEA)