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Siemens Stiftung

Cochlea - an overview

Labeled graphic:
The cochlea with the location of the vestibule, the oval window and the round window. To help understand where the sound enters and exits the cochlea.

The cochlea consists of a coiled canal which appears in three compartments in the section. The part leading upwards is called the scala vestibuli and begins at the oval window.

Between scala vestibuli and scala tympani there is a membranous tube which is also filled with fluid. This is where the actual hearing organ, the Organ of Corti is located.

Information and ideas:
Can be used in a worksheet, for work together on the digital projector, or as an overhead transparency.
Further information regarding this graphic is available as information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
Structure and functions of a sensory organ
Reception of stimuli and transmission of information
Functions of senses

Medientypen

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Lernalter

11-18

Schlüsselwörter

Anatomy (human) Chart Ear

Sprachen

Englisch

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Cochlea - individual coil section

Labeled graphic:
Section of individual coil of spiral canal of the cochlea.

The labeled graphic shows a section of an individual coil of the cochlea.

The following are labeled: scala vestibuli, tectorial membrane, hair cells of the sensory cells, spiral canal of the cochlea, auditory nerve, scala tympani.

Information and ideas:
Can be used on a worksheet, as an overhead transparency or via digital projector.
Further information regarding this graphic is available as information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and functions of a sensory organ
Reception of stimuli and transmission of information
Functions of senses

Medientypen

Bild

Lernalter

11-18

Schlüsselwörter

Anatomy (human) Chart Ear Sound

Sprachen

Englisch

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Siemens Stiftung

Global energy supply - future development

Chart:
The development of the global energy supply from 1990 to 2035 is shown.

Reliable figures are available through 2012; from that date forward, the International Energy Agency must rely on estimates. The represented figures refer to the more optimistic New Policies Scenario, which takes into account political announcements and plans of governments, for example, to reduce CO2 emissions, although they have not yet been implemented. The estimated energy consumption for 2035 is 12,001 mtoe.

Using the following source: International Energy Agency (IEA)


Dieses Material ist Teil einer Sammlung

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Siemens Stiftung

Energy consumption of household appliances

Chart:
The chart shows the electric power consumption and, in some cases, the water consumption of certain household appliances. The average consumption figures of appliances from 2009 and 2015 are compared.

The chart shows a comparison of the electric power consumption of dishwashers, washing maschines, fridge-freezers, and tumble dryers. The values for 2015 are based on appliances with efficiency class A+++. It is clear that a savings potential of 15 to 40 percent still exists. For example, a 2015 washing machine uses 40 percent less electricity and 15 percent less water on average than a 2009 washing machine.

Information and ideas:
Apart from using state-of-the art technology, people can also save energy when washing dishes, washing and drying clothes, and cooking through energy-aware behavior. What options are there?


Dieses Material ist Teil einer Sammlung

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Siemens Stiftung

Worldwide consumption of fossil energy sources

Chart and table:
The worldwide consumption of fossil energy sources and their use in electric power and heat generation in figures.

The pie chart displays the percentage share of fossil energy sources (coal, oil, and natural gas) in the worldwide primary energy supply. The table shows a breakdown by distribution of these fossil energy sources to electric power and heat generation, but also to other areas such as industry.

Information and ideas:
The chart and table provide the students with an overview of where and to what extent fossil energy sources were used in 2005. These aids can be followed by discussions on the finite nature of these energy sources and on changing over to or expanding the use of renewable energy sources. Additional information can be found in the "An overview of energy sources? information sheet and the "How long will our energy sources last?? graphic.

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Speech as highly complex sound signal

Graphic:
Oscillographic curve of the spoken sentence "It's raining cats and dogs".

Speech sounds are fluctuating sound signals where the composition of frequencies changes all the time.
Aperiodical overlap periodical parts. Unlike noises, some of which have similar frequency curves, sound in speech is always the carrier of meaning or of messages sent out by the speaker. Other noises like smacking of lips, hissing, rhythms, basic pitch are typical of the individual (acoustic fingerprint) but not essential for the speech content!

Information and ideas:
Supplementary to worksheets and transparencies.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves
Communication and understanding

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Siemens Stiftung

Excitation energy of a water molecule

Chart:
Water can absorb heat energy in the form of vibrations or movement of its molecules. This energy content depends on the physical state: steam contains more energy than liquid water, for example.

The material surrounding us takes on different physical states depending on pressure and temperature (in Kelvin): solid, liquid or gaseous. This also applies to water: During a phase change from solid to liquid and liquid to gas respectively the energy of the water molecules increases without the temperature rising - the diagram for water shows plateaus. The values of these plateaus are approx. 6 kJ/mol (melting heat) and approx. 40,7 kJ/mol (vaporization heat) respectively.

Information and ideas:
Ideally suited for explaining the topic of phase equilibrium.

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Siemens Stiftung

Energy saving (mind map)

Mind map:
Different facets of energy saving are visualized.

Starting with the question of why energy saving is necessary, the mind map considers the questions of where, how, and at which societal levels energy can be saved.

Information and ideas:
The mind map is suitable as an introduction to the topic. Individual points can be assigned as presentation topics, such as "What is the government doing to save energy and to promote energy saving??


Dieses Material ist Teil einer Sammlung

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Siemens Stiftung

Communication costs energy

Interactive graphic:
Overview of the annual energy requirement of communication with a smartphone

In modern communications, as with every form of communication, a message is sent from a transmitter via a channel to a receiver. A smartphone is used daily, to communicate, navigate via GPS, or call up information from the Web. In this context, the graphic shows devices and transmitters with their annual energy requirement in kilowatt-hours (kWh). Most users have little idea about the amounts of energy (particularly electric power) that are needed for this modern communications technology. Servers, for example, need energy for uninterrupted operation and for the required cooling of equipment.

Information and ideas:
This topic raises questions such as: How much energy is needed worldwide for mobile radio communications? What could this energy otherwise be used for?


Dieses Material ist Teil einer Sammlung

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Siemens Stiftung

What do private households use energy for?

Chart:
Percentage energy consumption of German and British private households according to different application areas

The bars show what proportions of the energy consumption in private households are used for room heating, hot water, cooking, lighting, and for electronic appliances. By way of example, the data for Germany and the United Kingdom from 2012 are compared. In addition, the total energy consumption of all households in Germany and the United Kingdom in 2013 is indicated. In addition, the total energy consumption of all African countries south of the Sahara is indicated.
As can be seen from the chart, a large proportion of the energy in a household is used for heating and hot water. But considerable energy is also used for running refrigerators. Some of this energy could be saved by using it sparingly and and deliberately.

Information and ideas:
If you look at the energy consumption of individual areas in their entirety, you will see that heating energy accounts for the largest share at over 60 percent in both countries. From this it follows that there is enormous energy saving potential particularly when it comes to heating. How can that be implemented? A few examples are:
· the construction of energy-saving buildings by paying attention to the influence of daylight and ensuring adequate insulation
· the purchase of energy-efficient household appliances with energy labels A, A+, and A++.
Compared with the two European countries, the energy consumption in Africa is low. One reason for this is that in many regions, only a few people even have access to an energy supply.

Information and ideas:
What energy-saving measures can students take themselves? Specific energy saving tips can also be found in the "Tips for energy saving in the household? medium.


Dieses Material ist Teil einer Sammlung