Bild

Siemens Stiftung

Sense organs - sense of touch

Photo:
A blind person can, with the help of his fingers and sense of touch, read Braille, for example, on a banknote.

On banknotes there is a sign specially for blind people so that they can distinguish between the different denominations even without being able to see the notes.

Information and ideas:
Who can find the sign?
In which situations do you need your sense of touch?

Relevant for teaching:
Structure and function of a sensory organ
Reception of stimuli and processing of information
Senses discover the environment

Anderer Ressourcentyp

Siemens Stiftung

Nerve conduction in the skin

Information sheet:
A stimulus is received by a receptor and transmitted across the nerve cells to the brain.

The cells of the nervous system are introduced and the basic structure of a nerve cell is described. The process of transmitting a nerve impulse from the skin to the brain is explained based on saltatory conduction.
In addition, the different skin sensors are introduced:
· Free nerve endings
· Tactile corpuscles (Meissner?s corpuscles)
· Cold receptors (Krause?s corpuscles)
· Heat receptors (Ruffini?s corpuscles)
· Pressure receptors (Pacinian corpuscles)

Anderer Ressourcentyp

Siemens Stiftung

Skin receptors

Interactive schematic diagram:
The layers of the skin and the receptors they contain can be labeled interactively.

The graphic shows the three areas of the skin (epidermis, dermis, subcutis) and the receptors they contain for pain, sense of touch, cold, heat, and pressure. The receptors receive the external stimuli and forward them to the nervous system.

The graphic can be labeled individually or as a whole.

Anderer Ressourcentyp

Siemens Stiftung

Nerve conduction in the skin

Simulation:
Process of transmitting nerve impulses in the skin.

If a stimulus is exerted on the skin (e.g., through touch or heat), the affected receptor immediately transfers an electrical impulse to the next nerve cell. In this way, the impulse travels across several nerve cells and finally reaches the spinal cord and then the brain, which ultimately processes the information.

Three animations show the process of transmitting impulses in different degrees of detail.

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

Sense organ skin - sense of touch and of feel

Photo:
The skin as sense organ. A gigantic organ which we use to touch and to feel.

The biggest organ in the human body is the skin.
A twelve-year-old has an amount of skin equivalent to about 20 A4 pages.
The skin has several tasks:
To begin with, to protect against external influences; it can heal itself in the event of minor injuries. And then it is responsible for touching and feeling. We can distinguish between six different sensations: touch, pressure, pain, tension, vibration and temperature.

Information and ideas:
What sorts of things can I feel? Here, it is a good idea to prepare a box full of materials which can be recognised by touching and feeling them.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sense organ
Reception of stimuli and processing of information
Senses discover the environment

Anderer Ressourcentyp

Siemens Stiftung

C5 What functions does the skin have? (link list)

Link list:
Further information on the experiment "C5 What functions does the skin have? - The skin as a sense organ".

The links can be used for preparing or for further study of experiments from Experimento | 10+.

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Sense organs - sense of feeling

Graphic:
How sensitively our skin reacts to temperatures can be seen in the sauna. After the heat, the cold gets our blood circulation going!

The skin gives us information about temperatures via receptors. As a rule, the heat in the sauna makes our blood pressure go down. The subsequent sensation of cold on the skin does not just stimulate the peripheral blood circulation. A reflex reaction via the autonomic nervous system causes our blood pressure to rise to the normal level again as well.

Information and ideas:
Use picture to introduce topic with the question "What can we feel with our skin?", e.g. cold, heat, wind etc.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sensory organ
Reception of stimuli and processing of information
Senses discover the environment

Experiment

Siemens Stiftung

C6 Skin and hygiene (student instructions)

Experimentation instructions for Experimento | 10+:
Detailed instructions and questions for students on conducting the experiment "Skin and hygiene - Why do we wash our hands?". This experiment comprises two subexperiments.


The experiment comprises two subexperiments:
· What happens when you wash your hands?
· The pH value of skin

For each subexperiment, the students are first provided with an overview of the materials to be used and safety information. This overview is followed by the detailed, step-by-step instructions for conducting the experiment. Afterwards, the students are asked to note their observations. Specific questions are used to guide the students as they analyze the results of the experiments. At the end, the students are asked probing questions related to the experiment (an answer sheet is available for teachers).

Notes:
· Observe the safety information in the instructions as well as the applicable safety guidelines for your school and discuss it with your students.
· This student instruction is also available in Word format (doc-file).

Anderer Ressourcentyp

Siemens Stiftung

Washing hands - Avoiding illnesses

Information sheet:
Germs can enter our bodies via our hands. We can protect ourselves against germs through careful hygiene of the hands.

The information sheets answers the following questions:
· What diseases can the germs cause?
· How can diseases be spread via our hands?
· How can the transmission of germs via the hands be prevented?
In addition, it provides useful tips on how to wash hands properly.

Information and ideas:
In context of hand washing, the significance of the skin?s protective acid mantle can be addressed as well as the possible risks of excessive use of soap.

Arbeitsblatt

Siemens Stiftung

C6 Skin and hygiene (worksheet 2)

Worksheet for subject teaching in English:
For the student experimentation instructions of the same name. Methodology tool: standardized questions developed by Josef Leisen and Heinz Klippert.


Note: This worksheet has been developed especially for subject teaching in English and for language-sensitive subject teaching. It uses the standardized questions methodology tool developed by Josef Leisen and Heinz Klippert. Standardized questions are a collection of interrogative phrases and are used to practice question-answer situations. The students can pose the questions to each other or to the teacher.
Students whose native language is not English and who do not have strong English skills receive support and training in understanding the technical vocabulary. They work with the specialized vocabulary and in this way acquire the ability to communicate about specific subjects.


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