Audio

Siemens Stiftung

Spatial perception

Sound:
Sequence of same sounds with varying echoes makes spatial perception clear. A sound in a living room is different to what it is in a hall.

We recognize immediately whether we are in a small room with not much space in it or whether we are walking through a big hall. The sound and the echo of our steps tell us the dimensions of the room.
We know from experience: When we find a cave, we shout into it to see how big it is, before we dare to enter it.

Information and ideas:
The recording simulates different rooms. A sequence of sounds is played. At first, you have the impression you are in a small room and, at the end, in a big hall.
There can be a class discussion about what the rooms might look like.

Relevant for teaching:
Reception of stimuli and processing of information
Senses discover the environment

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

Sense organs - sense of taste

Photo:
A healthy person has about 4,000 taste buds spread over the tongue, the inside of the cheeks and the throat.

The fact that we can enjoy the taste of our food is the result of interaction between several senses. It is not just through our mouth that we get the messages referring to the taste of food and drink. Our so-called "chemical senses", the actual sense of taste and the sense of smell work together to provide human beings with the ability to recognize a wide range of different tastes and flavours. Scientists are of the opinion that the perception of taste can be trained in a similar way to the sense of smell. They claim that gourmets should be able to train their sense of taste in the same way that perfumiers can.

Information and ideas:
Students can have a tasting session and try to recognize different drinks by tasting them when they are blindfolded:
- Cola
- Water
- Tea
- Fruit juice
- etc.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sensory organ
Reception of stimuli and processing of information
Senses discover the environment

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

Sense organ eye

Photo:
The eye as sense organ. It does not just differentiate between brightness and colour but also shape.

The eye is a ball that is located in a cavity in our skull. It consists mainly of the cornea, the lens and the retina.
The light perceived is beamed first of all by the lens. The retina with its sensory cells is at the back of the eye, this is where the image spots arrive from where they are transmitted via the optical nerve to the brain.
In the brain the whole image is then put together.

Information and ideas:
Explanation of how the eye works can be done, for example, by showing the students a camera:
lens: lens of the camera
retina: film
brain: development of the film

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sense organ
Reception of stimuli and processing of information
Senses discover the environment

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

Sense of rotation

Photo:
A child turns its head while sitting on a swivel chair. Why does it get dizzy?

Simple experiment for the students to try out themselves.

Information and ideas:
Typical situations which the children know from their own everyday life:
- Turning on a chair
- Rides on roundabouts
- Turning quickly in a circle
etc.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sensory organ
Reception of stimuli and processing of information
Senses discover the environment

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

Five senses in the human head

Labeled graphic:
The five human senses.

With the five sense organs, eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin, the human being receives stimuli, transforms them into electrical nerve impulses which are then transmitted to the brain.
There they are processed, classified and interpreted.

Information and ideas:
Suitable as starting point. Important to point out that internal organs are involved as well as the visible organ and that the brain is necessary for the evaluation of the impulses.

Relevant for teaching:
Structure and function of a sensory organ
Reception of stimuli and processing of information
Senses discover the environment

Anderer Ressourcentyp

Siemens Stiftung

C4 Sense of sight (teacher instructions)

Experimentation instructions for Experimento | 8+:
Background information on the content and practical information on conducting the "Sense of sight? experiment, which comprises four subexperiments.

The teacher instructions include information on the following: the main question, relevance to the curriculum, skills, notes on conducting the subexperiments, the research group, further research assignments, the reference to technology, and the reference to values.

The experiment comprises four subexperiments:
· Perception of colours
· Our field of vision
· You need light to see
· Where do the colors of the rainbow come from?

Vision is one of the most important senses for humans. It is through our eyes that we perceive more than two-thirds of the sensory impressions processed by our brains. When we hear a bicycle bell ring behind us, we automatically turn around. That?s because we prefer to see things with our eyes rather than just trusting our sense of hearing. In addition, our two eyes do incredible things: They provide an extremely detailed, continually updated, three-dimensional color picture of the world.
For most of us, this is completely normal; not only children, but also adults, are often unaware of everything that our eyes can actually do. Therefore it is important to sensitize children to their sense of sight early on: How do our eyes work? How can we perceive our surroundings with the aid of our eyes? What level of sensory stimulus is good for us, and when does sensory overload begin? The answers to these questions will differ depending on the individual.

Notes:
· Observe the safety information in the instructions as well as the applicable safety guidelines for your school.
· All materials mentioned in the instructions will have to be purchased directly from commercial sources.

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Siemens Stiftung

Training of senses

Photo:
A girl is shaking a film container in order to identify the content of the container by means of the noise.

This photo shows a situation from a listening memory game. The game involves the ability to remember and recognize things.

Information and ideas:
This is how the game is played:
Different materials like sand, rice, dried peas, pebbles or stones, flour etc. are filled into empty film containers, two containers for each material. Now the players have to match the pairs by identifying the material inside the containers by shaking The whole game can be played with teams of two partners as well. Each player gets a film container and has to go round and compare the sounds made when the containers are shaken and thus find his or her partner.
(Tip: Label all the containers on the bottom,
for example with colored dots so that the pairs can be clearly recognized again.)

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and functions of a sense organ
Senses discover the environment

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

Sense organs stimuli

Photo:
At a fair, all sorts of stimuli affect our senses, for example, the smell of candy floss, the bright lights of the roundabouts etc.

If all our senses are attracted at the same time with the same degree of intensity, as at a fair, it can be a very pleasant experience but it can also be a strain.

Information and ideas:
The students can report on their own experiences, for example, what can I smell, see and hear at a fair?
What are the typical smells, tastes and sounds associated with Christmas?

Relevant for teaching:
Structure and function of a sense organ
Reception of stimuli and processing of information
Senses discover the environment

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

Sense organ skin - sense of touch and of feel

Photo:
The skin as sense organ. A gigantic organ which we use to touch and to feel.

The biggest organ in the human body is the skin.
A twelve-year-old has an amount of skin equivalent to about 20 A4 pages.
The skin has several tasks:
To begin with, to protect against external influences; it can heal itself in the event of minor injuries. And then it is responsible for touching and feeling. We can distinguish between six different sensations: touch, pressure, pain, tension, vibration and temperature.

Information and ideas:
What sorts of things can I feel? Here, it is a good idea to prepare a box full of materials which can be recognised by touching and feeling them.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sense organ
Reception of stimuli and processing of information
Senses discover the environment

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

;: Echolocation with dolphins

Graphic:
Dolphins use the echo under water to locate other fish as prey.

Just like a bat, a dolphin can recognize from the echo whether the prey is nearby or not. It produces clicks and whistling noises under water. If it has discovered something of interest, the dolphin will move closer and "click" more quickly. This gives it an exact acoustical picture of its surroundings.

Information and ideas:
Based on the phenomenon of an echo, this graphic can show how animals use the echo to find prey.

Relevant for teaching:
Functions of the senses
Acoustic phenomena
Sound/acoustics: hearing range, hearing frequency limit, parameters
Vibrations and waves