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Siemens Stiftung

Auditory path - brain parts hearing

Labeled graphic:
"Auditory pathway? describes route taken by auditory nerve impulses in and through the brain. But the hearing process is not over yet.

The auditory pathway is the nerve tract for the sensation of hearing.
People used to think that the senses were more localised. Now we know that apart from the auditory pathway, lots of other parts of the brain are involved, too - parts that are also used by the other senses. It is this that makes it possible for human intelligence to understand abstract concepts beyond the mere recognition of patterns. To be able to understand the complex facts of a complex sentence does, after all, involves more than recognizing the words together.

Information and ideas:
Further information regarding this graphic is available as information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
Reception and processing of information
Perception, recognition, action

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Siemens Stiftung

Speech signal - individual word

Chart:
Screenshot of the oscillographic curve of the spoken word "dogs".

Speech sounds are fluctuating sound signals where the composition of frequencies changes all the time.
Aperiodical overlap periodical parts. Unlike noises, some of which have similar frequency curves, sound in speech is always the carrier of meaning or of messages sent out by the speaker. Other noises like smacking of lips, hissing, rhythms, basic pitch are typical of the individual (acoustic fingerprint) but not essential for the speech content!

Information and ideas:
Supplementary to worksheets and transparencies.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves
Communication and understanding

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Speech as highly complex sound signal

Graphic:
Oscillographic curve of the spoken sentence "It's raining cats and dogs".

Speech sounds are fluctuating sound signals where the composition of frequencies changes all the time.
Aperiodical overlap periodical parts. Unlike noises, some of which have similar frequency curves, sound in speech is always the carrier of meaning or of messages sent out by the speaker. Other noises like smacking of lips, hissing, rhythms, basic pitch are typical of the individual (acoustic fingerprint) but not essential for the speech content!

Information and ideas:
Supplementary to worksheets and transparencies.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves
Communication and understanding

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Siemens Stiftung

Speech recognition sentence - syllable - phoneme

Chart:
The components of speech, from phoneme to sentence presented visually.

The graphic shows the oscilloscope curve of the spoken sentence "It?s raining cats and dogs" and excerpts from the units from which speech is composed: sentence, word, phoneme.

Information and ideas:
Speech recognition and speech synthesis are very topical themes in the field of information and communication technology.
Further information on this graphic is available as information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sense organ
Reception of impulses and information transmission
Sensory perception

Audio

Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Speech as highly complex sound signal

Recording:
A sentence spoken which also serves as an example of frequency-spectographical analysis in the topic "Types of sound".

Speech sounds are fluctuating sound signals where the composition of frequencies changes all the time.

Aperiodical overlap periodical parts. Unlike noises, some of which have similar frequency curves, sound in speech is always the carrier of meaning or of messages sent out by the speaker. Other noises like smacking of lips, hissing, rhythms, basic pitch are typical of the individual (acoustic fingerprint) but not essential for the speech content!

Information and ideas:
Supplementary to worksheets and transparencies.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves
Communication and understanding

Audio

Siemens Stiftung

Speech signal - individual word

Recording:
Individual word "dogs", which serves as example of frequency-spectographical analysis with the topic of "Types of sound".

Speech sounds are fluctuating sound signals where the composition of frequencies changes all the time.
Periodic parts are aperiodic parts overlapped. Unlike noises, some of which have similar frequency curves, sound in speech is always the carrier of meaning or of messages sent out by the speaker. Other noises like smacking of lips, hissing, rhythms, basic pitch are typical of the individual (acoustic fingerprint) but not essential for the speech content!

Information and ideas:
Supplementary to worksheets and transparencies.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves
Communication and understanding

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Siemens Stiftung

No voice without resonance

Graphic:
Mouth, sinuses, nose, pharynx, windpipe and lung form a resonance cavity which is indispensable for singing and speech.

Compared to other living creatures man has developed extremely flexible vocal chords and this fact together with the variable resonance cavity are the prerequisites for the differentiated ability to articulate which is the basis for human speech.
The tone colour is determined by the resonance and the sort of vibration of the vocal chords. Resonance and also the intensity with which the vocal chords vibrate are decisive for the loudness.

Information and ideas:
The link can be made from the physics and physiology of sound production to speech and communication as prerequisite for the development of human intelligence and social forms of human interaction.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves

Medientypen

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Lernalter

11-18

Schlüsselwörter

Sound Speech

Sprachen

Englisch

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Siemens Stiftung

Sound diffraction

Graphic:
Diffraction is a typical feature of sound waves when they meet an obstacle.

The diffraction of sound waves is a physical mechanism which ensures the entry of sound waves into acoustic shadows.
That means the sound is audible in areas which are cut off from the direct sound incidence, such as behind obstacles.

Information and ideas:
Diffraction of light can be proved when a parallel ray beam of monochrome light is directed at a narrow opening. A screen set up behind the opening gives us a diffraction figure (bright and dark stripes that lose intensity the further outwards they are). With sound, a direct reference to the students' everyday world is even easier: Why can you hear noise from a street in front of a building even when you are behind the building?
Further information about this graphic is provided as an information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves

Medientypen

Bild

Lernalter

13-18

Schlüsselwörter

Chart Optics Sound Wave (physics)

Sprachen

Englisch

Anderer Ressourcentyp

Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment;: Sound propagation

Information sheet:
Scientific explanation of the phenomenon that it is possible to blow out a candle with sound.

The experiment "tambourine blows out candle" demonstrates clearly how sound waves propagate and that a movement of air particles is associated with it (you may use a bass drum instead of a tambourine). On the basis of this experiment the propagation of sound when speaking can be explained.

Information and ideas:
Simple experiment that can be reproduced easily in class.
The media used in this information sheet are available as individual media files on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
Acoustic phenomena
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves
Communication


Dieses Material ist Teil einer Sammlung

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Siemens Stiftung

Sound field and sound absorption

Schematic diagram:
Concentric propagation of sound waves. The lines of the same loudness are shown which decreases as the distance to the sound source increases.

Why do we hear less the further away we are from the source of sound?
Sound propagates from its source in a circular way, the sound energy spreads over an increasingly large area and the sound pressure decreases accordingly.
In a free sound field it decreases by about 6 dB every time the distance to source is doubled. Within a room, however, this only applies very close to the sound source.

Information and ideas:
Useful for discussing why we hear less the further away the sound source is.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves
Communication and understanding

Medientypen

Bild

Lernalter

11-18

Schlüsselwörter

Chart Sound Wave (physics)

Sprachen

Englisch

Dieses Material ist Teil einer Sammlung