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Siemens Stiftung

Speech signal - individual word

Chart:
Screenshot of the oscillographic curve of the spoken word "dogs".

Speech sounds are fluctuating sound signals where the composition of frequencies changes all the time.
Aperiodical overlap periodical parts. Unlike noises, some of which have similar frequency curves, sound in speech is always the carrier of meaning or of messages sent out by the speaker. Other noises like smacking of lips, hissing, rhythms, basic pitch are typical of the individual (acoustic fingerprint) but not essential for the speech content!

Information and ideas:
Supplementary to worksheets and transparencies.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves
Communication and understanding

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Siemens Stiftung

Speech recognition sentence - syllable - phoneme

Chart:
The components of speech, from phoneme to sentence presented visually.

The graphic shows the oscilloscope curve of the spoken sentence "It?s raining cats and dogs" and excerpts from the units from which speech is composed: sentence, word, phoneme.

Information and ideas:
Speech recognition and speech synthesis are very topical themes in the field of information and communication technology.
Further information on this graphic is available as information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sense organ
Reception of impulses and information transmission
Sensory perception

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Siemens Stiftung

Communication costs energy

Interactive graphic:
Overview of the annual energy requirement of communication with a smartphone

In modern communications, as with every form of communication, a message is sent from a transmitter via a channel to a receiver. A smartphone is used daily, to communicate, navigate via GPS, or call up information from the Web. In this context, the graphic shows devices and transmitters with their annual energy requirement in kilowatt-hours (kWh). Most users have little idea about the amounts of energy (particularly electric power) that are needed for this modern communications technology. Servers, for example, need energy for uninterrupted operation and for the required cooling of equipment.

Information and ideas:
This topic raises questions such as: How much energy is needed worldwide for mobile radio communications? What could this energy otherwise be used for?


Dieses Material ist Teil einer Sammlung

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Speech as highly complex sound signal

Graphic:
Oscillographic curve of the spoken sentence "It's raining cats and dogs".

Speech sounds are fluctuating sound signals where the composition of frequencies changes all the time.
Aperiodical overlap periodical parts. Unlike noises, some of which have similar frequency curves, sound in speech is always the carrier of meaning or of messages sent out by the speaker. Other noises like smacking of lips, hissing, rhythms, basic pitch are typical of the individual (acoustic fingerprint) but not essential for the speech content!

Information and ideas:
Supplementary to worksheets and transparencies.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves
Communication and understanding

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Siemens Stiftung

;: Echolocation with dolphins

Graphic:
Dolphins use the echo under water to locate other fish as prey.

Just like a bat, a dolphin can recognize from the echo whether the prey is nearby or not. It produces clicks and whistling noises under water. If it has discovered something of interest, the dolphin will move closer and "click" more quickly. This gives it an exact acoustical picture of its surroundings.

Information and ideas:
Based on the phenomenon of an echo, this graphic can show how animals use the echo to find prey.

Relevant for teaching:
Functions of the senses
Acoustic phenomena
Sound/acoustics: hearing range, hearing frequency limit, parameters
Vibrations and waves

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Siemens Stiftung

Perforation of the eardrum

Labeled graphic:
Simplified illustration of a perforated eardrum.

A perforated eardrum can occur when foreign bodies, for example, instruments to clean the ears, are stuck in too far or when there are loud bangs near the ear.
Violent blows to the ear can also cause perforation.

Minor tears or perforations can heal up by themselves provided they get the proper treatment. In any case, a doctor should always be consulted!

Information and ideas:
Can be used for illustration purposes on the subject of "Ear diseases" either on transparencies or worksheets. Supposedly "harmless" minor problems can turn into serious damage to the ear.

Relevant for teaching:
Hearing defect/hearing impairment

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Siemens Stiftung

Phase diagram of water

Diagram:
A P-T diagram for pure water. The lines indicate the temperature and the pressure at which the solid, liquid, and vapor phases exist in equilibrium. All three phases exist in equilibrium only at the triple point; otherwise, there are a maximum of two phases.

In addition to the equilibrium curves (melting pressure curve, sublimation curve, vapor pressure curve), the diagram also includes the pressure and temperature data for the melting, boiling, triple, and critical points.
Attention: The axes of the diagram are not shown true to scale.

Information and ideas:
This diagram also reflects the density anomaly of water (lower density in the solid state than in the liquid state): The melting pressure curve shows a negative slope. The reason for the density anomaly is the hydrogen bonds.

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Siemens Stiftung

How long will our energy sources last?

Chart:
A bar chart shows an overview of the remaining years of use of primary energy sources.

Of the fossil energy sources, petroleum will be the first to run out. What is the situation for the other fossil energy sources? Can new technologies delay the point in time when they run out? And is it really true that renewable energy sources never run out?
The time axis has a logarithmic scale.

Information and ideas:
Students learn that the logarithmic scale represents numbers ranging over several powers. More in-depth information regarding how long energy sources will last is provided in the "An overview of energy sources? information sheet.


Dieses Material ist Teil einer Sammlung

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Siemens Stiftung

How does a shark hear?

Graphic:
Shark and its hearing organ (lateral-line organ).

The shark as an example of an animal that mainly hears with its body surface. The sense of hearing (lateral-line organ) is sketched in.
Information and ideas:
Picture to introduce topic "How do animals communicate with each other?".
Further information regarding this graphic is available as information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: hearing range, hearing frequency limit
Communication, Understanding

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Siemens Stiftung

String telephone

Graphic:
Communicate over a distance with the help of a string telephone - this can be done easily with students.

Solid materials (in this case the string) conduct the sound.
But with a string telephone it is also possible to demonstrate sound amplification and sound transmission.

Information and ideas:
Extension of experiment possible:
Comparison of string telephones made of different materials:
- string, wire
- plastic cups, tins, yoghurt cartons

Relevant for teaching:
Acoustic phenomena
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Communication and understanding
Vibrations and waves