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Siemens Stiftung

Speech signal - individual word

Chart:
Screenshot of the oscillographic curve of the spoken word "dogs".

Speech sounds are fluctuating sound signals where the composition of frequencies changes all the time.
Aperiodical overlap periodical parts. Unlike noises, some of which have similar frequency curves, sound in speech is always the carrier of meaning or of messages sent out by the speaker. Other noises like smacking of lips, hissing, rhythms, basic pitch are typical of the individual (acoustic fingerprint) but not essential for the speech content!

Information and ideas:
Supplementary to worksheets and transparencies.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves
Communication and understanding

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Siemens Stiftung

Speech recognition sentence - syllable - phoneme

Chart:
The components of speech, from phoneme to sentence presented visually.

The graphic shows the oscilloscope curve of the spoken sentence "It?s raining cats and dogs" and excerpts from the units from which speech is composed: sentence, word, phoneme.

Information and ideas:
Speech recognition and speech synthesis are very topical themes in the field of information and communication technology.
Further information on this graphic is available as information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sense organ
Reception of impulses and information transmission
Sensory perception

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Siemens Stiftung

How long will our energy sources last?

Chart:
A bar chart shows an overview of the remaining years of use of primary energy sources.

Of the fossil energy sources, petroleum will be the first to run out. What is the situation for the other fossil energy sources? Can new technologies delay the point in time when they run out? And is it really true that renewable energy sources never run out?
The time axis has a logarithmic scale.

Information and ideas:
Students learn that the logarithmic scale represents numbers ranging over several powers. More in-depth information regarding how long energy sources will last is provided in the "An overview of energy sources? information sheet.


Dieses Material ist Teil einer Sammlung

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Siemens Stiftung

Five senses in the human head

Labeled graphic:
The five human senses.

With the five sense organs, eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin, the human being receives stimuli, transforms them into electrical nerve impulses which are then transmitted to the brain.
There they are processed, classified and interpreted.

Information and ideas:
Suitable as starting point. Important to point out that internal organs are involved as well as the visible organ and that the brain is necessary for the evaluation of the impulses.

Relevant for teaching:
Structure and function of a sensory organ
Reception of stimuli and processing of information
Senses discover the environment

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Siemens Stiftung

Normal audiometric audibility limit

Chart:
Audiometric audibility limit of a person with normal hearing with typical frequency and loudness ranges for speech and music.

The speech range is that range of frequency and loudness where speech communication usually takes place. Within the audiometric audibility limit it is the kidney-shaped range. In our diagram it is coloured blue.

Information and ideas:
An attempt at comparing diagrams showing normal hearing and reduced hearing can be done by students individually - as homework. It is useful for testing written expression (English) as well as for testing basic skills from Mathematics or Physics (how to interpret a diagram, for example).

Relevant for teaching:
Hearing defects/hearing impairment
How hearing functions
Sound/acoustics

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Siemens Stiftung

Auditory path - brain parts hearing

Labeled graphic:
"Auditory pathway? describes route taken by auditory nerve impulses in and through the brain. But the hearing process is not over yet.

The auditory pathway is the nerve tract for the sensation of hearing.
People used to think that the senses were more localised. Now we know that apart from the auditory pathway, lots of other parts of the brain are involved, too - parts that are also used by the other senses. It is this that makes it possible for human intelligence to understand abstract concepts beyond the mere recognition of patterns. To be able to understand the complex facts of a complex sentence does, after all, involves more than recognizing the words together.

Information and ideas:
Further information regarding this graphic is available as information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
Reception and processing of information
Perception, recognition, action

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Siemens Stiftung

Abnormal audiometric audibility limit

Chart:
Audiometric audibility limit of a person with hearing impairment compared to an intact sense of hearing shows handicap in speech range.

The speech range is that range of frequency and loudness where speech communication usually takes place. Within the audiometric audibility limit it is the kidney-shaped range. In our chart it is coloured blue. When, for example, hair cells are damaged in the inner ear and no longer work, the audiometric audibility limit changes. The speech range is affected.

Information and ideas:
An attempt at comparing charts showing normal hearing and reduced hearing can be done by students individually - as homework. It is useful for testing written expression (English) as well as for testing basic skills from Mathematics or Physics (how to interpret a chart, for example).

Relevant for teaching:
Hearing defects/hearing impairment
How hearing functions
Sound/acoustics

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Siemens Stiftung

Energy Saving: Energy saving as an energy source

Schematic diagram:
On the basis of selected examples, this overview demonstrates that energy saving itself can be described as an "energy source.?

Five examples from everyday life (electric power and heat generation, power distribution, construction, lighting, and transportation) are used to show how energy saving reduces the consumption of individual energy sources (primary or secondary).

Information and ideas:
Students can look for further examples. What is the significance of energy saving in relation to the general scarcity of resources? Can it be equated roughly with the harnessing of renewable energy sources?


Dieses Material ist Teil einer Sammlung

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Effects of noise

Schematic diagram:
The graphic shows that - apart from physical effects - sound does not become noise until it reaches the brain.

Noise has effects on the physical and mental health of human beings. What the individual subjectively considers to be noise depends on a number of factors, for example the individual's own mood.

Information and ideas:
Can be used as introduction to topic "What are the effects of noise??.
Can also be used for illustration purposes: individual parts can be covered up (and then gradually uncovered in the course of the lesson).

Relevant for teaching:
Noise: causes, effect, protection

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Speech as highly complex sound signal

Graphic:
Oscillographic curve of the spoken sentence "It's raining cats and dogs".

Speech sounds are fluctuating sound signals where the composition of frequencies changes all the time.
Aperiodical overlap periodical parts. Unlike noises, some of which have similar frequency curves, sound in speech is always the carrier of meaning or of messages sent out by the speaker. Other noises like smacking of lips, hissing, rhythms, basic pitch are typical of the individual (acoustic fingerprint) but not essential for the speech content!

Information and ideas:
Supplementary to worksheets and transparencies.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves
Communication and understanding