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Siemens Stiftung

Entire ear section (b/w)

Unlabeled graphic:
Simple black and white cross-section of ear. For worksheets, printouts etc.

With the help of this graphic the most important functional areas of the ear and their significance in the hearing process can be explained.

Information and ideas:
The teacher can label the graphic together with the students on the computer screen or get the students to label it themselves either on a printout or at the computer screen.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sensory organ

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Speech as highly complex sound signal

Graphic:
Oscillographic curve of the spoken sentence "It's raining cats and dogs".

Speech sounds are fluctuating sound signals where the composition of frequencies changes all the time.
Aperiodical overlap periodical parts. Unlike noises, some of which have similar frequency curves, sound in speech is always the carrier of meaning or of messages sent out by the speaker. Other noises like smacking of lips, hissing, rhythms, basic pitch are typical of the individual (acoustic fingerprint) but not essential for the speech content!

Information and ideas:
Supplementary to worksheets and transparencies.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves
Communication and understanding

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Siemens Stiftung

Frequency differentiation in the uncurled cochlea

Labeled graphic:
High-pitched tones are heard in the front part of the cochlea, low tones are heard in the back part.

As the sense of hearing is able to differentiate locations of the nerves, it is able to recognize the frequencies.

Information and ideas:
This graphic is good for creating a link between the topics of "Sound? and "Hearing?.
Further information regarding this graphic is available as information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
Perception of sound
Human hearing ability
Communication and understanding
The human body
Structure and functions of a sensory organ

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Siemens Stiftung

Speech signal - individual word

Chart:
Screenshot of the oscillographic curve of the spoken word "dogs".

Speech sounds are fluctuating sound signals where the composition of frequencies changes all the time.
Aperiodical overlap periodical parts. Unlike noises, some of which have similar frequency curves, sound in speech is always the carrier of meaning or of messages sent out by the speaker. Other noises like smacking of lips, hissing, rhythms, basic pitch are typical of the individual (acoustic fingerprint) but not essential for the speech content!

Information and ideas:
Supplementary to worksheets and transparencies.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves
Communication and understanding

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Siemens Stiftung

Speech recognition sentence - syllable - phoneme

Chart:
The components of speech, from phoneme to sentence presented visually.

The graphic shows the oscilloscope curve of the spoken sentence "It?s raining cats and dogs" and excerpts from the units from which speech is composed: sentence, word, phoneme.

Information and ideas:
Speech recognition and speech synthesis are very topical themes in the field of information and communication technology.
Further information on this graphic is available as information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sense organ
Reception of impulses and information transmission
Sensory perception

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Sense organs - sense of feeling

Graphic:
How sensitively our skin reacts to temperatures can be seen in the sauna. After the heat, the cold gets our blood circulation going!

The skin gives us information about temperatures via receptors. As a rule, the heat in the sauna makes our blood pressure go down. The subsequent sensation of cold on the skin does not just stimulate the peripheral blood circulation. A reflex reaction via the autonomic nervous system causes our blood pressure to rise to the normal level again as well.

Information and ideas:
Use picture to introduce topic with the question "What can we feel with our skin?", e.g. cold, heat, wind etc.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sensory organ
Reception of stimuli and processing of information
Senses discover the environment

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Siemens Stiftung

Injuries to the ear through violence

Photo:
"Ouch!" Pulling at somebody's ears not only hurts, it can be dangerous and injure the ear both internally and externally!

Do not pull hard at somebody's ears or clip anyone round the ears because that can damage the sensitive ear.

Information and ideas:
A situation that can be observed in the school playground or at a children's playground. The photo can be used to start talking about the topic of how to protect the ears.

Possible questions:
What am I allowed to do to my ears?
What should I not do?
Why can a joke end up having serious consequences?

Relevant for teaching:
Hearing defects, hearing impairment
Personal health care

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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Differentiated frequency ranges in the cochlea

Labeled graphic:
Position of the receptors for tones of varying frequencies in the spiral canal of the human cochlea.

Frequencies between 16 hertz (hertz = vibrations per second, abbr.: Hz) and 20,000 Hz can be heard by the human ear.
To differentiate these frequencies, the receptors for high tones are at the beginning of the canal, those for the low tones at the apex of the cochlea.

Information and ideas:
The illustration is suitable for explaining or revising fundamentals of Physics like sound, frequency and vibrations.
Usable in a worksheet, for work together on the digital projector, or as an overhead transparency.

Further information regarding this graphic is available on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sense organ
Perception of sound
Human hearing ability
Communication and understanding

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Siemens Stiftung

; ; ;: Child with hearing aid

Graphic:
A boy and girl sitting at desks; the girl is wearing a hearing aid.

From the 2009 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities we can derive that children with and without disabilities should be taught together.
The graphic can serve as an example of how technical aids can be used in the case of disabilities.

Information and ideas:
Use graphic as introduction to topic of hearing damage. A handicap is visible to everyone (see hearing aid, compare with armband worn by the blind.)

Relevant for teaching:
Hearing damage, hearing impairment
How hearing works
Sound transduction
Impairment of sensory organs

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Siemens Stiftung

Outer ear section

Graphic:
The most important parts of the outer ear with pinna, ear canal, hair follicles, ceruminous glands and eardrum.

The outer ear consists of the pinna and the ear canal. The ear canal ends at the eardrum.
In the membranous wall of the ear canal there are glands which produce cerumen (earwax). At the edge of the ear canal there are some small hairs, hair follicles, which serve as protection against foreign bodies.

Information and ideas:
Helpful to distinguish outer, middle and inner ear.
Can be used, for example in a worksheet, for work together in class with the digital projector, as overhead transparency.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sensory organ
Functions of senses