Siemens Stiftung

Mineral, spring, table water

Web resource:
Clarification of terms and product information about mineral, spring, table water.

Natural mineral water is water that meets special requirements so that it can be officially recognized and allowed to be sold.

Anderer Ressourcentyp, Primärmaterial/Quelle

Siemens Stiftung

Household water treatment and safe storage in emergencies

Web resource:
Short, illustrated instructions from the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies on how to prepare drinking water in the home using simple methods (disinfection, sedimentation and filtration).

The brochure first of all provides information about the criteria for testing the water quality. It stresses the importance of drinking water treatment and of storing water hygienically and then describes the individual treatment methods. These are written largely in the form of pictograms so that the treatment methods are also understandable for the illiterate.

Information and ideas:
Some of the drinking water treatment methods shown here provide suggestions for freehand experiments.

Anderer Ressourcentyp

Siemens Stiftung

B4 We produce drinking water (student instructions)

Experimentation instructions for Experimento | 10+:
Detailed instructions and questions for students on conducting the experiment "We produce drinking water - Methods of purifying water". This experiment comprises three subexperiments.

The experiment comprises three subexperiments:
· Rough purification of contaminated water with silica sand, activated carbon, and filter paper
· Fine purification of water with membrane filter
· Fine purification of water with hollow fiber membrane filter

For each subexperiment, the students are first provided with an overview of the materials to be used and safety information. This overview is followed by the detailed, step-by-step instructions for conducting the experiment. Afterwards, the students are asked to note their observations. Specific questions are used to guide the students as they analyze the results of the experiments. At the end, the students are asked probing questions related to the experiment (an answer sheet is available for teachers).

· Observe the safety information in the instructions as well as the applicable safety guidelines for your school and discuss it with your students.
· This student instruction is also available in Word format (doc-file).

Anderer Ressourcentyp

Siemens Stiftung

; ; Waste water and sewage plant: Guideline for water treatment

Key information on the various treatment methods for drinking water, industrial water and water for agriculture.

The topic water treatment has a wide range of references to many science subjects and topics. The key physical, chemical, biological and technical aspects of the topic are presented and put in context by the guideline.

Information and ideas:
The same processes, sometimes with different refinements, are often used in drinking, non-potable and process water treatment as in waste water treatment.
An aide for the teacher, but suitable for detailed use by students.


Siemens Stiftung

Overview of membrane filters

An overview of the different pressure-driven membrane filtration processes.

Membrane filters consist of a microporous material. During filtration of water suspended particles above a certain size are retained while smaller particles can pass through the membrane unimpeded.
Apart from typical applications of the individual filter types, this tabular overview also lists the main parameters. Plastic is generally used as the filter material, although metal and ceramic membranes are also possible in principle. Depending on the size of the particles to be separated out and the pore size of the membrane the filtration process is referred to as microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration or reverse osmosis. The smaller the pores are, the greater the applied pressure difference has to be in order to force the water through the membrane.

Information and ideas:
Information on the individual filtration processes for further study can be found in the "Guideline for water treatment" on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Anderer Ressourcentyp

Siemens Stiftung

Water 2: We clean water (student instructions)

Experimentation instructions for students in grades 5, 6, and 7:
Detailed instructions and questions for students on conducting the second subexperiment on water quality.

The students will make dirty water and then try to purify the water again. In the process, they will learn about material/substance separation based on differing densities as well as the terms skim off, decant, and filter.

The instructions first include a photo and a list of the required apparatus and materials. Text and pictures explain the preparations for the experiment step by step. Then several assignments are presented: The students should express their guesses, conduct the experiment, and note down their observations.

Information and ideas:
· Observe the safety information in these instructions as well as in the teacher information related to the experiment and discuss them with your students.
· Also observe the applicable safety guidelines for your school.


Siemens Stiftung

Water - European Commission

Information about political initiatives and legislative programs in the European Union relating to water quality and water resources.

This website provides detailed information about political initiatives and legislative programs in the European Union relating to water quality and water resources. The aim is to ensure that Europe will have clean water of a sufficient quality.

Information and ideas:
Ideally suited for in-depth inquiry on many water topics.


Siemens Stiftung

Columbia Regional Sewage Plant

Web resource:
Website of the Columbia Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant.

Information and ideas:
This resource is also well suited for independent analysis by the students for presentations and projects.


Siemens Stiftung

Distribution of world precipitation

Information module, with charts:
Annual precipitation in selected cities in various climatic zones, data on precipitation and temperatures.

The total annual precipitation of the individual cities can be compared with each other. The precipitation and temperature curves indicate the climates. The precipitation and temperature data are from 1961-1990.

Information and ideas:
Students learn how to read climate diagrams and should be able to assign the individual locations to the various climates.
From the diagrams, students can draw conclusions on the role of water in agriculture in the various regions.

Anderer Ressourcentyp

Siemens Stiftung

Role play: Clean water for Katonga

Teaching ideas:
Instructions for a role play for a fictitious development project: Installation of a drinking water supply in an African village community.

Starting from a concrete description of the situation and working in groups, students confront the parties involved and present their positions by acting out roles. The parts to be played are:
- Representative of an aid organization
- Representative of the UN
- Manufacturer of water filters
- Representative of the national government
- Head of the village
- Inhabitant of the village.
Apart from the basic outline of the positions to be represented, students are also given details of further links so that they can immerse themselves in their particular role.
The medium also includes instructions for teachers.

Information and ideas:
Through this role play students can learn more about the objectives of development projects. It requires them to look at things from different angles or viewpoints, to observe the fine differences between these viewpoints and express them concisely.