Arbeitsblatt, Bild, Karte, Simulation, Text, Unterrichtsplanung, Video

FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen

Pixel auf Abwegen

Zentrales Element dieser Lerneinheit ist das Beispiel eines Flugzeugs, das für Scanneraufnahmen über eine Landschaft fliegt und durch eine Windböe vom geraden Kurs abkommt. Die dadurch auf dem Scannerbild entstandene Verzerrung können die Schülerinnen und Schüler durch eine Funktion korrigieren. Zusätzlich zum Verständnis der mathematischen Inhalte lernen die Schülerinnen und Schüler auch Aspekte der Fernerkundung kennen.

Arbeitsblatt, Bild, Karte, Simulation, Text, Unterrichtsplanung, Video

FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen

Summer in the City

Die Schülerinnen und Schüler setzen sich mit dem Themenkomplex Temperatur und Energie auseinander. Mithilfe von Thermalbildern werden sie in die Lage versetzt, Oberflächen unterschiedlicher Temperatur voneinander zu unterscheiden. Dabei lernen sie den Zusammenhang zwischen Oberflächentemperatur, spezifischer Wärmekapazität und weiteren thermalen Objekteigenschaften kennen.

Arbeitsblatt, Bild, Karte, Simulation, Text, Unterrichtsplanung, Video

FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen

Traces of Fire (Geography)

Forest fires claimed a large number of lives and caused great ecologic damage in the Mediterranean in the past years. During the summer and while the fires last, the media coverage is extensive - one can watch countless reports on the course of the fires, listen to interviews on losses and human tragedies, and read about backgrounds. But what about the developments in the affected regions after such a disaster? In order to derive statements on the development of ecosystems out of balance, the use of remote sensing data is advantageous, since it allows the comparison of different points in time, thereby, showing the development and change. Most Geography curricula include natural disasters and/or interactions between nature and human interferences (e.g. with spatial effects or effects on geo-ecological cycles). This teaching unit combines both topics and analyses how a ”natural” disaster, triggered or expedited by humans and, therefore, being a human interference with nature, effects the development of landscapes. The utilisation of satellite images in this case is particularly beneficial for they facilitate the analysis of an area at different points in time. Thereby, one may for example derivate conclusions on the development of landscapes in interaction with disastrous processes caused by humans. Especially the display of so-called vegetation indices allows conclusions on the vitality of plant stocks. The goal of the teaching unit "traces of fire in satellite images" is to point out the coherences between the electromagnetic spectrum, the production of satellite images and the detection of alterations within ecosystems. The teaching unit utilises the facilities of the computer for effectively conveying the issue by using animations and interactive applications. The topic complex is practically approached via a computer-based interactive learning module. The analysis tools within the learning module - NDVI or time series analysis - are programed in a new, clear and pupil-oriented fashion in Flash AS 3.0.

Arbeitsblatt, Bild, Karte, Simulation, Unterrichtsplanung, Video

FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen

Feuerspuren im Satellitenbild (Biologie)

Am konkreten Beispiel der verheerenden Waldbrände in Griechenland 2007 setzen sich die Schülerinnen und Schüler mit der Dynamik und Stabilität von Ökosystemen auseinander. Sie schlüpfen in die Rolle eines Beraters, der für die EU-Kommission die Entwicklung der Vegetation nach der Feuerkatastrophe analysieren soll. Zu diesem Zweck setzen die Schülerinnen und Schüler Satellitenbilder ein. Zunächst setzen sie sich mit den verschiedenen Spektralkanälen eines optischen Satelliten auseinander und berechnen einen Vegetationsindex (NDVI), der ihnen Aufschluss über die Vitalität der Vegetation gibt. Zuletzt wird mit mehreren NDVI-Bildern eine Zeitreihe aufgebaut und analysiert.

Arbeitsblatt, Bild, Karte, Simulation, Text, Unterrichtsplanung, Video

FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen

Feuerspuren im Satellitenbild (Geographie)

Am konkreten Beispiel der verheerenden Waldbrände in Griechenland 2007 setzen sich die Schülerinnen und Schüler mit den Ursachen und Folgen von Eingriffen in geoökologische Kreisläufe auseinander. Sie schlüpfen in die Rolle eines Beraters, der für die EU-Kommission die Entwicklung der Vegetation nach der Feuerkatastrophe analysieren soll. Zu diesem Zweck setzen die Schülerinnen und Schüler Satellitenbilder ein. Zunächst setzen sie sich mit den verschiedenen Spektralkanälen eines optischen Satelliten auseinander und berechnen einen Vegetationsindex (NDVI), der ihnen Aufschluss über die Vitalität der Vegetation gibt. Zuletzt wird mit mehreren NDVI-Bildern eine Zeitreihe aufgebaut und analysiert.

Arbeitsblatt, Bild, Karte, Simulation, Text, Unterrichtsplanung, Video

FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen

Pixel off the right Path

Dealing with functions mathematically is a basic aspect of this module. In addition, the pupils ought to learn about aspects of remote sensing. These aspects are divided into basic and optional parts. The basic facets are inalienable in order to comprehend the task. The additional facets are useful and interesting information for making the instruction livelier.

Arbeitsblatt, Bild, Karte, Simulation, Text, Unterrichtsplanung, Video

FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen

Tracing the Invisible

Within the thematic complex of the optics, satellite images apply exceptionally well. The physical basics of satellite remote sensing reach from the recording to the completed satellite image. The goal of the teaching unit "Tracing the invisible" is to convey the interrelations among the electromagnetic spectrum, reflect ion, absorption and the processes of recording and developing satellite images. The teaching unit makes use of the computer’s potentials to effectively convey the subject matter by using and interaction. A computer-based interactive learning module allows a practical consideration of the thematic field and, thereby, shall ease the comprehension of the electromagnetic spectrum invisible for the human eye. Therefore, the pupils get the chance to visualise the spectrum’s infrared range in the satellite image by allocating a colour. Furthermore, the computer-based learning module covers the following aspects of modern learning: The module is science based and, thereby, fosters propaedeutic science learning The module promotes a type of teaching that emphasises the students’ self-activity and self-responsibility. The module considers the students’ life reality. The computer is applied as work equipment. Students learn to use the computer as a tool instead of an information and entertainment medium. Furthermore, the pupils learn how to handle modern media and gain media competence. The teaching unit Tracing the invisible is composed of three different parts: The first part introduces the pupils to the topic reflection by asking them to do trials on the reflection of different objects together with a virtual professor. This part aims at the characterisation of different objects with regards to their reflection patterns. To allow linkages to the everyday life, the first module part focuses on the range of visible light within the electromagnetic spectrum. In the second part, the pupils can then transfer the knowledge they acquired in the virtual lap to a satellite. The overriding goal of this second module part is the comprehension of a satellite’s mode of operation. Therefore, it revolves around the following question: How does a satellite transform the absorbed reflection signals to coloured picture information? In the last module part, the complete electromagnetic spectrum is in the focus and, thereby, the pupils learn about how satellites can process light information aside from the visible one. The active and independent working with the teaching module provides room for intensive dispute on the topic. The comprehension is to be fostered primarily through the various interaction options, and, therefore, interactive tasks have been integrated into the module. The students need to comprehend the contents before being able to advance to the next module part by successfully completing a quiz. This quiz is considered an assistance to the pupils since they are not immediately confronted with the whole matter to prevent over-straining. After successfully completing a module part, the pupils may switch among parts and, thereby, are enabled to look up facts to solve upcoming questions. It is recommended to work on the teaching units in small groups (2 persons) since the pupils can then reflect and discuss experiences and results together. Thereby, the pupils’ capacity for team work is fostered besides their linguistic competence. The pupils’ active involvement changes the role of the teacher to the one of a learning coach, supporting the learning process as a guide, supervisor, and tutor.

Arbeitsblatt, Bild, Karte, Simulation, Text, Unterrichtsplanung, Video

FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen

Contrast

Satellite images are a practical way to convey the set-up of digital pictures as well as the basics of digital picture processing. The Contrast learning module aims at an advancement of the pupils’ knowledge on digital image processing and data structure. The module makes use of the computer’s scope in order to convey the topic involving animation and interaction. Dealing with this range of topics in a practical way by using a computer based, interactive learning module allows sustainable teaching. The teaching unit makes use of the computer’s capabilities to convey the topics using animations and interaction with lasting effects. Through practical learning with the interactive and computer-based module, the pupils ought to comprehend the differences between binary values and different bit-levels as well as the conversion of binary values into grey levels more easily. In addition, the computer-based learning module covers the following aspects of modern teaching: • The module set-up is science oriented and, thereby, fosters scientific propaedeutic learning • The learning module fosters the lesson structure and focuses on the pupils’ self responsibility • The module considers the pupils’ everyday life • The computer serves as work equipment. Therefore, the pupils learn how to use the computer as a tool rather than solely as an information and entertainment device. Furthermore, the acquaintance with new media and, therefore, the pupils’ media competence is promoted All in all, the teaching unit “contrast” comprises three parts. The first part introduces the pupils to the general topic. The pupils can get acquainted with the set-up of images (columns, rows, pixels) with the provided high-resolution image. General information on the pictures’ set-up is included in the info box. The pupils ought to comprehend that a digital picture is comprised of pixels with each pixel representing particular colour information. Then, the pupils are asked to locate two defective pixels, correct their grey levels, and adapt their values to the surrounding pixels. By actively and independently working on the learning module, the pupils are provided with a great number of opportunities to extensively deal with the topic. Thereby, the comprehension is fostered. This is guaranteed by the fact that the pupils may only advance to the next module part after having completed the exercises. The module set-up is regarded an assistance for the pupils since they are not confronted with the whole issue at once which could risk to overstrain the pupils. It is recommended to work on the teaching unit in groups of two in order to provide the pupils the opportunity to reflect on and discuss their experiences and results together. Thereby, both linguistic and team competence are fostered. The active involvement of the pupils leads to a change in the role of the teacher. The teacher becomes a study coach who takes over the role of a companion, guide, and assistant.

Arbeitsblatt, Bild, Karte, Simulation, Text, Unterrichtsplanung, Video

FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen

From Satellite Images to Maps

Maps as a basis for spatial orientation play a key role in geography teaching. To use maps as important devices, maps as such are dealt with in class with pupils aged 10-11. A main subject in geography teaching for pupils aged 10-11 is ”mapping”. This subject area contains the question how maps can be derived from aereal or satellite images. Through this, it is referred back to national standards in education because the following competences are included: • Competence of spatial orientation: The pupils learn to orient themselves in space and therefore gain topographic orientation knowledge. • Map competence: The pupil’s spatial perception is trained. The pupils learn how to deal with maps adequately and are able to create sketches of topographic overviews and simple maps theirselves. The aim of the teaching unit “From Satellite Images to Maps” is to put the pupils in a position to derive thematic maps from digital satellite images with simple analysis tools and to formulate statements regarding landscape composition. This teaching unit makes use of computers to teach the topic in an effective manner through animations and interaction. The work with this complex of themes is done through a computer-aided and interactive learning module. The analysis tools within the learning module are implemented in flash in an illustrative design suitable for pupils. Furthermore, the computer-aided learning module takes the following requests to teaching and learning into account: • The module’s structure is science-oriented and thus encourages science-propaedeutic learning in general. • The learning module encourages lesson organisations which depend on individual activity and self-responsibility of the pupils. • The learning module takes the pupils‘ real life into account. • The medium computer is used as working equipment; thus the pupils experience the computer not only as a mere source of information and entertainment but also as a tool. Moreover, the use of new media and therefore media competence is promoted.

Arbeitsblatt, Bild, Karte, Simulation, Text, Unterrichtsplanung, Video

FIS - Fernerkundung in Schulen

Atmospheric Circulation

The topics weather and atmospheric circulation are foreseen for many curricula in secondary education. They are very much relevant for the students’ geography education as without knowledge of atmospheric processes (as a driving force) the distinctions among the natural potentials of different areas cannot be fully understood.