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How long will our energy sources last?

Chart:
A bar chart shows an overview of the remaining years of use of primary energy sources.

Of the fossil energy sources, petroleum will be the first to run out. What is the situation for the other fossil energy sources? Can new technologies delay the point in time when they run out? And is it really true that renewable energy sources never run out?
The time axis has a logarithmic scale.

Information and ideas:
Students learn that the logarithmic scale represents numbers ranging over several powers. More in-depth information regarding how long energy sources will last is provided in the "An overview of energy sources? information sheet.


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Energy Saving: Energy saving as an energy source

Schematic diagram:
On the basis of selected examples, this overview demonstrates that energy saving itself can be described as an "energy source.?

Five examples from everyday life (electric power and heat generation, power distribution, construction, lighting, and transportation) are used to show how energy saving reduces the consumption of individual energy sources (primary or secondary).

Information and ideas:
Students can look for further examples. What is the significance of energy saving in relation to the general scarcity of resources? Can it be equated roughly with the harnessing of renewable energy sources?


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Energy consumption of household appliances

Chart:
The chart shows the electric power consumption and, in some cases, the water consumption of certain household appliances. The average consumption figures of appliances from 2009 and 2015 are compared.

The chart shows a comparison of the electric power consumption of dishwashers, washing maschines, fridge-freezers, and tumble dryers. The values for 2015 are based on appliances with efficiency class A+++. It is clear that a savings potential of 15 to 40 percent still exists. For example, a 2015 washing machine uses 40 percent less electricity and 15 percent less water on average than a 2009 washing machine.

Information and ideas:
Apart from using state-of-the art technology, people can also save energy when washing dishes, washing and drying clothes, and cooking through energy-aware behavior. What options are there?


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Stores for electrical energy

Overview graphic:
Examples for direct and indirect stores for electrical energy are shown and the stored energy form is designated.

Electrical energy should if possible be generated at precisely the time at which it is needed. This is because electrical energy is difficult and expensive to store. A distinction is made between direct and indirect stores for electrical energy. Electrical energy can only be stored directly in capacitors. With indirect storage, the electrical energy can be converted into a different form of energy which can then be stored.

Information and ideas:
Students should think about the economical use of the energy stores shown (for example: How much energy can be stored? Can the energy store be used without any problems? Where do losses occur?).

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Siemens Stiftung

Worldwide consumption of fossil energy sources

Chart and table:
The worldwide consumption of fossil energy sources and their use in electric power and heat generation in figures.

The pie chart displays the percentage share of fossil energy sources (coal, oil, and natural gas) in the worldwide primary energy supply. The table shows a breakdown by distribution of these fossil energy sources to electric power and heat generation, but also to other areas such as industry.

Information and ideas:
The chart and table provide the students with an overview of where and to what extent fossil energy sources were used in 2005. These aids can be followed by discussions on the finite nature of these energy sources and on changing over to or expanding the use of renewable energy sources. Additional information can be found in the "An overview of energy sources? information sheet and the "How long will our energy sources last?? graphic.

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Siemens Stiftung

Energy saving (mind map)

Mind map:
Different facets of energy saving are visualized.

Starting with the question of why energy saving is necessary, the mind map considers the questions of where, how, and at which societal levels energy can be saved.

Information and ideas:
The mind map is suitable as an introduction to the topic. Individual points can be assigned as presentation topics, such as "What is the government doing to save energy and to promote energy saving??


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Food production - "energy hog?

Interactive graphic:
Production stages for a food until it is eaten, with the energy consumption and energy-saving potential for each stage.

An industrially produced foodstuff generally has to travel a long way before it lands on our plate. This is illustrated graphically using an example of a food (chicken wings). At each step, the graphic shows what energy is needed for and what measures could be taken to save energy. Synthetic amino acids are named as one energy-saving possibility. All essential amino acids (for example, methionine) can be produced synthetically today and would save up to 95 percent of the energy if used in feed, compared, for example, with growing soy beans. In addition, the use of freshwater and pollution with fertilizers and pesticides would be reduced. Further potential for saving energy can be discussed.

Information and ideas:
Because this media file shows energy consumption in the context of food production and consumption, monitoring one?s own consumption would be appropriate. Students should think of meals for one day that use as little energy as possible for production, transportation, consumption, and waste disposal. The thoughts can range from mostly unprocessed products to completely synthetic products.
The "Meat and sustainability? animated film is suitable to get the students thinking.


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Communication costs energy

Interactive graphic:
Overview of the annual energy requirement of communication with a smartphone

In modern communications, as with every form of communication, a message is sent from a transmitter via a channel to a receiver. A smartphone is used daily, to communicate, navigate via GPS, or call up information from the Web. In this context, the graphic shows devices and transmitters with their annual energy requirement in kilowatt-hours (kWh). Most users have little idea about the amounts of energy (particularly electric power) that are needed for this modern communications technology. Servers, for example, need energy for uninterrupted operation and for the required cooling of equipment.

Information and ideas:
This topic raises questions such as: How much energy is needed worldwide for mobile radio communications? What could this energy otherwise be used for?


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What do private households use energy for?

Chart:
Percentage energy consumption of German and British private households according to different application areas

The bars show what proportions of the energy consumption in private households are used for room heating, hot water, cooking, lighting, and for electronic appliances. By way of example, the data for Germany and the United Kingdom from 2012 are compared. In addition, the total energy consumption of all households in Germany and the United Kingdom in 2013 is indicated. In addition, the total energy consumption of all African countries south of the Sahara is indicated.
As can be seen from the chart, a large proportion of the energy in a household is used for heating and hot water. But considerable energy is also used for running refrigerators. Some of this energy could be saved by using it sparingly and and deliberately.

Information and ideas:
If you look at the energy consumption of individual areas in their entirety, you will see that heating energy accounts for the largest share at over 60 percent in both countries. From this it follows that there is enormous energy saving potential particularly when it comes to heating. How can that be implemented? A few examples are:
· the construction of energy-saving buildings by paying attention to the influence of daylight and ensuring adequate insulation
· the purchase of energy-efficient household appliances with energy labels A, A+, and A++.
Compared with the two European countries, the energy consumption in Africa is low. One reason for this is that in many regions, only a few people even have access to an energy supply.

Information and ideas:
What energy-saving measures can students take themselves? Specific energy saving tips can also be found in the "Tips for energy saving in the household? medium.


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Abnormal audiometric audibility limit

Chart:
Audiometric audibility limit of a person with hearing impairment compared to an intact sense of hearing shows handicap in speech range.

The speech range is that range of frequency and loudness where speech communication usually takes place. Within the audiometric audibility limit it is the kidney-shaped range. In our chart it is coloured blue. When, for example, hair cells are damaged in the inner ear and no longer work, the audiometric audibility limit changes. The speech range is affected.

Information and ideas:
An attempt at comparing charts showing normal hearing and reduced hearing can be done by students individually - as homework. It is useful for testing written expression (English) as well as for testing basic skills from Mathematics or Physics (how to interpret a chart, for example).

Relevant for teaching:
Hearing defects/hearing impairment
How hearing functions
Sound/acoustics