Bild

Siemens Stiftung

Perforation of the eardrum

Labeled graphic:
Simplified illustration of a perforated eardrum.

A perforated eardrum can occur when foreign bodies, for example, instruments to clean the ears, are stuck in too far or when there are loud bangs near the ear.
Violent blows to the ear can also cause perforation.

Minor tears or perforations can heal up by themselves provided they get the proper treatment. In any case, a doctor should always be consulted!

Information and ideas:
Can be used for illustration purposes on the subject of "Ear diseases" either on transparencies or worksheets. Supposedly "harmless" minor problems can turn into serious damage to the ear.

Relevant for teaching:
Hearing defect/hearing impairment

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

Phase diagram of water

Diagram:
A P-T diagram for pure water. The lines indicate the temperature and the pressure at which the solid, liquid, and vapor phases exist in equilibrium. All three phases exist in equilibrium only at the triple point; otherwise, there are a maximum of two phases.

In addition to the equilibrium curves (melting pressure curve, sublimation curve, vapor pressure curve), the diagram also includes the pressure and temperature data for the melting, boiling, triple, and critical points.
Attention: The axes of the diagram are not shown true to scale.

Information and ideas:
This diagram also reflects the density anomaly of water (lower density in the solid state than in the liquid state): The melting pressure curve shows a negative slope. The reason for the density anomaly is the hydrogen bonds.

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

Speech signal - individual word

Chart:
Screenshot of the oscillographic curve of the spoken word "dogs".

Speech sounds are fluctuating sound signals where the composition of frequencies changes all the time.
Aperiodical overlap periodical parts. Unlike noises, some of which have similar frequency curves, sound in speech is always the carrier of meaning or of messages sent out by the speaker. Other noises like smacking of lips, hissing, rhythms, basic pitch are typical of the individual (acoustic fingerprint) but not essential for the speech content!

Information and ideas:
Supplementary to worksheets and transparencies.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves
Communication and understanding

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

Speech recognition sentence - syllable - phoneme

Chart:
The components of speech, from phoneme to sentence presented visually.

The graphic shows the oscilloscope curve of the spoken sentence "It?s raining cats and dogs" and excerpts from the units from which speech is composed: sentence, word, phoneme.

Information and ideas:
Speech recognition and speech synthesis are very topical themes in the field of information and communication technology.
Further information on this graphic is available as information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sense organ
Reception of impulses and information transmission
Sensory perception

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

How long will our energy sources last?

Chart:
A bar chart shows an overview of the remaining years of use of primary energy sources.

Of the fossil energy sources, petroleum will be the first to run out. What is the situation for the other fossil energy sources? Can new technologies delay the point in time when they run out? And is it really true that renewable energy sources never run out?
The time axis has a logarithmic scale.

Information and ideas:
Students learn that the logarithmic scale represents numbers ranging over several powers. More in-depth information regarding how long energy sources will last is provided in the "An overview of energy sources? information sheet.


Dieses Material ist Teil einer Sammlung

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

;: Chemical energy

Chart:
Chemical energy as binding energy between atoms (as a potential curve in the illustration).

Chemical energy is present both in the bond between atoms and molecules as well as in the potential for chemical bonding. This energy can be released in the form of heat during the bonding process or when those bonds are broken. This "heat of reaction" is also referred to as reaction enthalpy (H). The release of heat (dH < 0) is referred to as an exothermic reaction. An endothermic reaction is when heat is absorbed (dH > 0).
Every mixture of source materials that can react to produce end products can be regarded as a potential source of chemical energy.
Microscopically speaking, this chemical energy can be found in the bonds between individual atoms, as illustrated in the potential curve.

Information and ideas:
Chemical energy is a form of energy that is easy to store - whether in the human body or in batteries. An additional example is hydrogen as a chemical energy store for renewable energy sources.

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

Auditory path - brain parts hearing

Labeled graphic:
"Auditory pathway? describes route taken by auditory nerve impulses in and through the brain. But the hearing process is not over yet.

The auditory pathway is the nerve tract for the sensation of hearing.
People used to think that the senses were more localised. Now we know that apart from the auditory pathway, lots of other parts of the brain are involved, too - parts that are also used by the other senses. It is this that makes it possible for human intelligence to understand abstract concepts beyond the mere recognition of patterns. To be able to understand the complex facts of a complex sentence does, after all, involves more than recognizing the words together.

Information and ideas:
Further information regarding this graphic is available as information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
Reception and processing of information
Perception, recognition, action

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

Abnormal audiometric audibility limit

Chart:
Audiometric audibility limit of a person with hearing impairment compared to an intact sense of hearing shows handicap in speech range.

The speech range is that range of frequency and loudness where speech communication usually takes place. Within the audiometric audibility limit it is the kidney-shaped range. In our chart it is coloured blue. When, for example, hair cells are damaged in the inner ear and no longer work, the audiometric audibility limit changes. The speech range is affected.

Information and ideas:
An attempt at comparing charts showing normal hearing and reduced hearing can be done by students individually - as homework. It is useful for testing written expression (English) as well as for testing basic skills from Mathematics or Physics (how to interpret a chart, for example).

Relevant for teaching:
Hearing defects/hearing impairment
How hearing functions
Sound/acoustics

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

Steam pressure curve and phase diagram of water

Charts:
The steam pressure curves (p-V diagram) and the phase diagram (p-T diagram) of water are compared.

If you heat water to 100 °C at normal atmospheric pressure, it turns into steam. But what effect does raising or lowering the pressure have on the vaporization temperature?
The answer to this is given by the steam pressure curve (T-curves in the p-V diagram on the left) and the phase diagram (p-T diagram of the right) of the water. Steam pressure is the term for the pressure at which gas and liquid are in equilibrium, i.e. the same number of molecules evaporate as condense back into water. Above the critical temperature (numerical values are given) the water is always gaseous, regardless at what temperature, and it can be treated as a real gas (Van der Waals equation, formula is given). At every temperature below the critical temperature there is a steam pressure for which there is a two-phase zone (liquid and gaseous). In the liquid phase range it is possible to recognize from the steep rise in the curves that liquid substances are barely compressible.
The critical temperature must not be confused with the triple point temperature (see p-T diagram). This characterizes the values of temperature and pressure at which all phases (solid, liquid and gaseous) are present simultaneously.

Information and ideas:
At what temperature does water boil on Mount Everest? So-called "Steam pressure tables" provide information about this. It would also be interesting to refer to the phase transition points as temperature critical points. At the phase transition from liquid to gaseous the energy applied does not initially lead to an increase in temperature. The same applies to the melting of ice. Not until all the water has evaporated or melted does the temperature rise further.

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

Sound diffraction

Graphic:
Diffraction is a typical feature of sound waves when they meet an obstacle.

The diffraction of sound waves is a physical mechanism which ensures the entry of sound waves into acoustic shadows.
That means the sound is audible in areas which are cut off from the direct sound incidence, such as behind obstacles.

Information and ideas:
Diffraction of light can be proved when a parallel ray beam of monochrome light is directed at a narrow opening. A screen set up behind the opening gives us a diffraction figure (bright and dark stripes that lose intensity the further outwards they are). With sound, a direct reference to the students' everyday world is even easier: Why can you hear noise from a street in front of a building even when you are behind the building?
Further information about this graphic is provided as an information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves

Medientypen

Bild

Lernalter

13-18

Schlüsselwörter

Chart Optics Sound Wave (physics)

Sprachen

Englisch