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Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Effects of noise

Schematic diagram:
The graphic shows that - apart from physical effects - sound does not become noise until it reaches the brain.

Noise has effects on the physical and mental health of human beings. What the individual subjectively considers to be noise depends on a number of factors, for example the individual's own mood.

Information and ideas:
Can be used as introduction to topic "What are the effects of noise??.
Can also be used for illustration purposes: individual parts can be covered up (and then gradually uncovered in the course of the lesson).

Relevant for teaching:
Noise: causes, effect, protection

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Siemens Stiftung

Injuries to the ear through violence

Photo:
"Ouch!" Pulling at somebody's ears not only hurts, it can be dangerous and injure the ear both internally and externally!

Do not pull hard at somebody's ears or clip anyone round the ears because that can damage the sensitive ear.

Information and ideas:
A situation that can be observed in the school playground or at a children's playground. The photo can be used to start talking about the topic of how to protect the ears.

Possible questions:
What am I allowed to do to my ears?
What should I not do?
Why can a joke end up having serious consequences?

Relevant for teaching:
Hearing defects, hearing impairment
Personal health care

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Siemens Stiftung

; ; ;: Child with hearing aid

Graphic:
A boy and girl sitting at desks; the girl is wearing a hearing aid.

From the 2009 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities we can derive that children with and without disabilities should be taught together.
The graphic can serve as an example of how technical aids can be used in the case of disabilities.

Information and ideas:
Use graphic as introduction to topic of hearing damage. A handicap is visible to everyone (see hearing aid, compare with armband worn by the blind.)

Relevant for teaching:
Hearing damage, hearing impairment
How hearing works
Sound transduction
Impairment of sensory organs

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Siemens Stiftung

Normal audiometric audibility limit

Chart:
Audiometric audibility limit of a person with normal hearing with typical frequency and loudness ranges for speech and music.

The speech range is that range of frequency and loudness where speech communication usually takes place. Within the audiometric audibility limit it is the kidney-shaped range. In our diagram it is coloured blue.

Information and ideas:
An attempt at comparing diagrams showing normal hearing and reduced hearing can be done by students individually - as homework. It is useful for testing written expression (English) as well as for testing basic skills from Mathematics or Physics (how to interpret a diagram, for example).

Relevant for teaching:
Hearing defects/hearing impairment
How hearing functions
Sound/acoustics

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Siemens Stiftung

Inflammation of the middle ear

Labeled graphic:
Section of an ear shows the regions affected by middle ear inflammation.

In cases of inflammation of the middle ear (Otitis media) the mucous membrane of the tympanic cavity is inflamed.

Middle ear inflammation is usually caused by infections of the nasopharynx region which rise up into the tympanic cavity via the Eustachian tube.

Information and ideas:
This graphic is good for discussing possible complications (for example "mastoiditis?). The students should be made aware of how important it is to have these diseases properly treated and to make sure that they recover fully and properly.
Further information regarding inflammation of the middle ear in particular and diseases of the ear in general is available as information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
Hearing defect/hearing impairment

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Siemens Stiftung

Abnormal audiometric audibility limit

Chart:
Audiometric audibility limit of a person with hearing impairment compared to an intact sense of hearing shows handicap in speech range.

The speech range is that range of frequency and loudness where speech communication usually takes place. Within the audiometric audibility limit it is the kidney-shaped range. In our chart it is coloured blue. When, for example, hair cells are damaged in the inner ear and no longer work, the audiometric audibility limit changes. The speech range is affected.

Information and ideas:
An attempt at comparing charts showing normal hearing and reduced hearing can be done by students individually - as homework. It is useful for testing written expression (English) as well as for testing basic skills from Mathematics or Physics (how to interpret a chart, for example).

Relevant for teaching:
Hearing defects/hearing impairment
How hearing functions
Sound/acoustics

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Siemens Stiftung

Hearing aids seen historically

Photo:
Old woman with ear trumpet.

Over the course of time, hearing aid technology has made enormous progress, thus making the lives of hearing-impaired people much easier.
Before 1878 there were practically only mechanical hearing aids based on the sound funnel principle.
The photo shows Madame de Meuron, born in 1882 in Bern, Switzerland; died in 1980 in Riggisberg. She preferred using an ear trumpet throughout her life, arguing that then she had to hear only what she wanted to hear.

Information and ideas:
Elementary school students can use paper to easily recreate the old hearing aids in the form of ear trumpets. In this way they can understand the simplest effect of sound amplification.

Relevant for teaching:
Hearing damage/hearing impairment
How hearing works
Sound transduction


Dieses Material ist Teil einer Sammlung

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Siemens Stiftung

Functional areas of the ear

Labeled graphic:
The whole ear from the functional standpoints "sound conduction? and "sound perception?. Important to understand hearing damage.

In the sound conduction system of the outer and middle ear, the sound wave is retained in its original type; the vibrations are simply amplified and passed on. When the sound wave is introduced into the sound perception system of the inner ear, a mechanical transformation into a traveling wave takes place, which the receptor cells then transform into electric nerve impulses.

Information and ideas:
Here the question can be raised as to what extent a weakening or interruption of this system leads to a reduction of hearing ability.

Relevant for teaching:
The human body
Structure and function of a sensory organ


Dieses Material ist Teil einer Sammlung