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Text

History.com Editors

"I have a dream" Speech

Die berühmte Rede von Martin Luther King als Textversion und Hintergrundinformationen zur Bürgerrechtsbewegung in den Vereinigten Staaten.

Audio

Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: SOS Signal

Sound:
The SOS call in Morse code is a good example of information encoded as a sequence of signals.

Certain types of information can only be transmitted after encoding. In the best known encoding procedure, the Morse code, every letter in the alphabet is presented by a sequence of short and long signals (dot/dash or long tone/short tone). Morse messages are still transmitted in short and long tones.
The recording of a SOS Morse message underscores that individual coded signals (three short, three long and three short sounds) convey information: SOS = "Save Our Souls".

Information and ideas:
Ideally suited as entry to the topic area of coding, speech, communication.

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Speech as highly complex sound signal

Graphic:
Oscillographic curve of the spoken sentence "It's raining cats and dogs".

Speech sounds are fluctuating sound signals where the composition of frequencies changes all the time.
Aperiodical overlap periodical parts. Unlike noises, some of which have similar frequency curves, sound in speech is always the carrier of meaning or of messages sent out by the speaker. Other noises like smacking of lips, hissing, rhythms, basic pitch are typical of the individual (acoustic fingerprint) but not essential for the speech content!

Information and ideas:
Supplementary to worksheets and transparencies.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves
Communication and understanding

Anderer Ressourcentyp

Siemens Stiftung

Hear, recognize and understand speech (interactive)

Animation:
Shows how ear and sense of hearing interact. The ear alone is not enough - a little brain is also necessary!

Hearing is not just the reception of the sound but it also involves the processing of the impulses in the brain.
A spoken sentence reaches our ear in the shape of sound waves, it is collected and beamed through the pinna, amplified via the eardrum and the ossicles and it then stimulates the sensory cells in the cochlea. These cells send the impulses along the auditory nerve which conveys the impulses into the auditory centre of the brain.
In the brain, the signals are recognized as words and their meaning understood as a sentence in context with other words.

Information and ideas:
This process should be explained step by step.
It may be useful to make a comparison with a dynamo:
The pedalling on a bicycle moves the dynamo on the wheel, something happens. The impulse is passed on, a lamp lights up; what happens in the hearing process is similar as an impulse is also sent to the brain, and there, too, "a light" goes on.

Relevant for teaching:
Structure and function of a sensory organ
Reception of stimuli and transmission of information
Communication


Dieses Material ist Teil einer Sammlung

Audio

Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: Speech as highly complex sound signal

Recording:
A sentence spoken which also serves as an example of frequency-spectographical analysis in the topic "Types of sound".

Speech sounds are fluctuating sound signals where the composition of frequencies changes all the time.

Aperiodical overlap periodical parts. Unlike noises, some of which have similar frequency curves, sound in speech is always the carrier of meaning or of messages sent out by the speaker. Other noises like smacking of lips, hissing, rhythms, basic pitch are typical of the individual (acoustic fingerprint) but not essential for the speech content!

Information and ideas:
Supplementary to worksheets and transparencies.

Relevant for teaching:
Sound/acoustics: parameters
Vibrations and waves
Communication and understanding

Bild

Siemens Stiftung

Auditory path - brain parts hearing

Labeled graphic:
"Auditory pathway? describes route taken by auditory nerve impulses in and through the brain. But the hearing process is not over yet.

The auditory pathway is the nerve tract for the sensation of hearing.
People used to think that the senses were more localised. Now we know that apart from the auditory pathway, lots of other parts of the brain are involved, too - parts that are also used by the other senses. It is this that makes it possible for human intelligence to understand abstract concepts beyond the mere recognition of patterns. To be able to understand the complex facts of a complex sentence does, after all, involves more than recognizing the words together.

Information and ideas:
Further information regarding this graphic is available as information sheet on the media portal of the Siemens Stiftung.

Relevant for teaching:
Reception and processing of information
Perception, recognition, action

Primärmaterial/Quelle

Siemens Stiftung

Morse alphabet

Web resource:
What is the Morse code and how is it interpreted? On this Website you will find the answer and an overview of all code values.


The Morse code translates the symbols of the Latin alphabet into an "alphabet" consisting of three signals: a short signal, a long signal and a pause. The information is created by the combination of signals and pauses. This code was developed for the telegraphic transmission of information in the first half of the 19th century. At the beginning of the 21st century it is hardly used any more. However, everyone knows of it because of the internationally understood distress call "SOS".

Information and ideas:
For further study for students and as a reference work for code values.

Anderer Ressourcentyp

Siemens Stiftung

The Ear, Hearing and Hearing Impairment: How does screen reading software work? (link list)

Link list:
Selected links for working on the inquiry task of the same name.

Information and ideas:
Suitable as a source for Internet inquiry for teachers and students alike.

Anderer Ressourcentyp

Siemens Stiftung

Communication (link list)

Link list:
Many interesting links regarding the topic "Communication".

Information and ideas:
Suitable as a source for internet inquiry for the teacher and students.

Audio

Siemens Stiftung

Can you hear digital data?

Recording:
Is digital data audible?


A digital phone call (DSL, ISDN) is transmitted as an audio frequency. If you listen in to the transmission signal, though, all that you can hear is an incomprehensible twittering noise. This is because the signal is digitized and coded in binary form. At the beginning you will hear the dialing tone, a sequence of different pitches containing the call number in coded form. The subsequent twittering noise is then the digital call signal.

Information and ideas:
Students can carry out their own experiments with a classic analog modem with a monitor speaker which is a very good way to study the transmission of digital data in the audio frequency range. If you carry out the connection test with T-Online, for example, you can see what is happening and being transmitted at that moment in a text log displayed on the screen parallel to the audible sound.